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Analysis of Marketing in Sabai Grass in the Socio-Economic Development of Tribals in Mayurbhanj District, Orissa (India)

Analysis of Marketing in Sabai Grass in the  Socio-Economic Development of   Tribals in Mayurbhanj District, Orissa (India).

Dr.U.N.Sahu *, Mr. Asit Ranjan Satpathy**

________________________________________________________________

Socio-Economic development involves an increase in the material well being of the society. In a country like India ,about 80 per cent of the population living in rural area and around 70 per cent of the population dependent on agriculture. Mayurbhanj is one of the richest districts in Orissa so far as forest and mineral wealth are concerned. Sabai grass industry plays a predominant role in shaping the economic destiny of the tribal people in the district. In this paper an attempt has been made to analyse the innovative schemes and the role of Sabai grass industry for the economic developments of growers of the district;. Results show that the tribal of Mayurbhanj district generates the Sabai grass product marketing demand in national and international market so as to develop the economic status.

INTRODUCTION

Mayurbhanj is said to be a land of tribals. Out of 62 tribal communities of Orissa, 45 communities are found in Mayurbhanj alone. The per capita income of Orissa as measured by net state domestic agricultural and forest product per head of population, was about 20 percent lower than the all India per capita income in 2008. It remained as much as 43 percent below that of national average in 2007-08.Thus it was intended to make all empirical investigation of rural income in Mayurbhanj district of Orissa and to assess the impact of agricultural  and forest product marketing programmes initiated by the Government  of Orissa over the years.

             It has also the highest percentage of hard working people. In spite of rich natural and human resources it is a poor district more than 48 per cent of the rural area people live below the poverty line. Though majority of population are dependent on primary sector, the agriculture is undeveloped because the district is lacking in irrigation facilities. In agricultural sector there is hardly any marketable surplus production in the district except for Sabai grass.

Sabai grass is practically considered to be “The Money Plant” which ensures cash receipt through out the year. The industry is associated with various activities of raising production of grass and processing of consumer goods such as ropes, mats, carpets, sofa sets, wall hangings and other sophisticated fashionable articles. The Sabai grass industry has tremendous export potential. Artistic designing Sabai products are very popular in foreign countries which earn precious foreign exchange for the country. The industry helps in the growth of entrepreneurship amongst the villagers. This ensures economic development through modernization and innovation of the industrial culture in rural areas.

OBJECTIVE AND METHODOLOGY

The main objective of this paper is to (i) To review the present growth of Sabai grass industry scenario of Orissa in comparison to other states in India ;(ii)To find out the innovative marketing schemes  and analyse the role of Sabai grass industry for the economic developments of the Mayurbhanj district; (iii)To examine the various State Government plans , programmes and their implementation in the  agricultural development of Sabai grass;(iv)To identify various marketing problems faced by the Sabai grass industries and to suggest suitable measures for solving them;(v)To explore the involvement of existing agencies (NGO, Bank and Co-operative Society) for development by the way of education, training and their support in financing for improving the Sabai grass products and processes. Mayurbhanj is a tribal dominated district having 26 blocks. The villages are selected on the basis of agricultural production of Sabai grass. The primary data are collected from the field sources by direct observation and interview to the persons associated with Sabai grass industry such as growers, processors, rope makers, entrepreneurs, traders and other intermediaries. The period of study is mainly confined to the years from 1999 to 2008.

The data analysis is undertaken mostly with the help of marketing dynamics and computer based statistical analysis.

The marketing dynamics includes (1) The planning of organization for marketing of Sabai grass products;(2)Diagnosis of the area sample formation in the Mayurbhanj district;(3)Participative analysis of market chains;(4)Creating and Implementing the concept of Sabai grass enterprise option;(5)Identification of supply, demand and gaps in the local business development services by designing the strategy to strength the market decision and communication as shown in the model for enterprise development in the sample area of Mayurbhanj district.

A Sabai grass product marketing model based information system is a continuing and interacting structure of people, equipment, and procedures to collect, sort, analyze, evaluate and distribute pertinent, timely and accurate information for use by marketing decision makers in improve their marketing planning, implementation and control.

 

Internal Reports System

Marketing Research System

Marketing Intelligence System

Analytical Marketing System

Marketing Information System

Marketing Environment

 

Target Markets

Marketing Channels

Microenvironment forces

 

Marketing Environment

 

 

Analysis

Planning

Implementation

Control

 

Marketing Information

Marketing Information

Marketing Decisions and Communications to Tribals

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Marketing Model Based  Information System

The marketing model is extensively used to determine the Sabai grass product marketing demand in national and international market so as to develop the economic status of the cultivators.

The Computer based statistical analysis is carried out to identify the various economic factors impacting the Sabai grass production by applying the various statistical tools like Regression analysis and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) .

Multiple discriminant analysis (MDA) is an extension of discriminant analysis and a cousin of multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA), sharing many of the same assumptions and tests.

 

ANALYSIS

 

Most of the Sabai Grass plantations are located in the Revenue Sub-division of Baripada and Kaptipada of Mayurbhanj District.. Roughly the total area under Sabai Grass in district at present is about 22758 hectares Sabai Grass was in cultivation long since in the district, however, substantial extension of area was achieved during the 8th, 9th and 10th plan period. Up to the end of 7th plan the total area under Sabai Grass was estimated to be 9218 hects.

Sabai Grass is cultivated mostly by poor marginal and small farmers on their degraded lands. It is also collected by them as well as by the landless poor from the common pool village lands where it grows naturally. The per acre cost of production of Sabai Grass in the initial year works to around Rs.2,200. The cost for the second year is roughly Rs.650 and from the third year to ten year Rs.1000 per year. The produce is finally harvested in the 11th and 12th years. In the 11th year, the cost of harvesting is estimated at Rs.400 and in the 12th year at Rs.250. In the last two years, no maintenance is required and hence no maintenance costs. Thus the total cost of production over a period of 12 year works out Rs.11500 per acre.

The returns are realized from the sale of dry Sabai Grass which has a good market in the Mayurbhanj district. The total yield per acre over a period of 12 years was about 96 quintals (qt). The gross returns from the sale of Sabai Grass were estimated at the 2008 market price of Rs.500 per quintal. The gross returns over a period of 12 years were estimated to be Rs.48, 000 per acre and net return to be Rs.35, 500. The average net return per acre per annum over the 12 year period was Rs.3041. This represents a significant income from (land) resources that is degraded and whose opportunity cost is almost zero.

Sabai Grass of the Mayurbhanj district of Orissa is of good quality and has been accepted widely in the Indian market. Most of the traders prefer the Ropes made out of the Sabai Grass of this region. A large number of people are involved in this cottage industry (harvesting and rope making) or as a trader sending the produce (ropes) to the urban areas, both near and distant.

The total harvesting area of the Mayurbhanj district is 4.47 lakh hector of which 43.70 percent is highland with very poor water retention capacity. The highlands are generally not suitable for harvesting of crops or orchards. But they are suitable for harvesting of Sabai Grass. The agro climatic conditions obtaining in the district are also suitable for Sabai Grass production. According to general estimate the total production of Sabai grass in Mayurbhanj district of the state is about 15000 to 20000 metric ton/per annum of which some 9000 to 12000 metric ton is converted into ropes and the remainder is used for other purposes. At an average/minimum price of Rs.10 per kg of ropes and Rs.5 per kg of grass the total value of the produce works to Rs.16crore per annum which is quite a significant contribution to the economy of the Mayurbhanj district.

 

(a)Marketing Analysis

The marketing of Sabai Grass in Mayurbhanj district is analysed with the following points taken into consideration that, method of Marketing, Types of Market Place, Setting up Sabai grass enterprise, Marketing Agencies, Cooperative Societies, Market Yard Brokers, Price, Fixation of Price, Distress Sale, Problems of Marketing, Transportation, Storage, Supply of Agricultural Inputs Marketing Information and Role of Government in agricultural marketing.

Traditionally farmers have made decisions on what they should grow, what they should keep for home consumption, and what they are able to sell at the marketplace. In former times sales would have cantered on local markets and it would have been rare for a farmer to venture far a field in search of new market opportunities or to consider developing new, higher value to consider developing new, higher value products. This traditional form of agriculture starts to change as communities and nations begin to modernize. Through processes of urbanization, generally fostered by industrialization, demand for Sabai grass product from urban dwellers becomes dependent upon more sophisticated arrangements that require aggregation of farm produce, transportation, storage, wholesaling, processing and retailing. As cities expand, supply systems develop into increasingly longer and more complex market chains with many market channels and specialization of roles in the market chain based on product type, levels of added value and market segmentation.

 

 Farmers must also provide products and services at a price that is competitive with rival suppliers and there is increasing social pressure to ensure that production systems are environmentally sustainable. To achieve desired levels of competitiveness, farmers and their service providers need to build strategies that incorporate the following elements:

 

A clear market orientation, producing the right product for the right buyer at the right time and price. The establishment of production systems that makes efficient use of existing financial human and natural resources. The incorporation of necessary post harvest handling and processing techniques. Appropriate business and marketing skills and organizational schemes which lead to economies of scale by reducing costs and increasing marketable volumes of produce. Improved links among market chain actors and flows of both market based information and new production technologies.

The NTFP collection and marketing both private and collective domain are equally important. If one suppresses the other, it leads to exploitation of marginalized, inefficient management and non-realization of desired goal. In the first case, no importance was given to collective domain. As a result individuals continued to be exploited in one or other form in spite of corrective measures taken by government.

In the second case on Sabai grass cooperatives, collective domains did not ensure private growth through interdependent accountability. It only aimed at solving marketing problems. This was the case of collective suppressing private domain to a great or small extent. As a result individual producers became less accountable to the cooperatives. The Market value of Sabai rope at present is Rs.13.00 to Rs.16.00 per Kg. as per quality. The Sabai grass from the Forest Corporation and Soil Conservation department Depot is available at Rs.1150/qtl., compared to the rate of Rs.1300 to Rs.1700/quintal in the open market. So the regional income is estimated to be Rs.8.12 to 6.5 lakhs per week, depending on the seasons.

Therefore an attempt was made to appreciate the importance of both private and collective domain through mutually interdependent growth sustenance cycle. Here individuals are encouraged to enhance their living standard through skill up gradation. Commons facilitate the individual growth and ensure most competitive market price. This makes private and common dependent on each other without intruding into others domain or suppressing individual’s enterprising ability. However, as system it is of recent origin, one needs to wait and watch how it works in the long run.

The major functions are:

Attending exhibitions at state, national and international level with rural ethnic products like Sabai grass, Jute products of Mayurbhanj. Organising Pallishree Mela and District Level Exhibition. Assisting DRDA in implementing SGSY scheme from planning to implementation stage. Preparation of model project report based on cluster approach under SGSY scheme. Formulation of unit cost under SGSY for individual and group finance. Developing two key products covering all aspects of micro enterprise right from market identification, technology transfer, improvement of productivity and quality, organizing skill development training, bank credit linkage and market tie-up. Organising training/workshop on related topics design development, product development, micro enterprise development etc for block level functionaries, bankers, NGOs, Integrated Community Development  Scoiety (ICDS) and for Swarojgaris.

(b) Statistical Analysis

The analysis reveals that the 1.0% of the respondents Sabai grass product are purchased by consumers, 3.0% by both consumers and middlemen, 15.0% by Government organization, 31.5% by non-government organization and 47.5% by co-operative enterprises .ORMAS, an apex State Level Marketing Organisation was established with a mandate to provide non-credit inputs like procurement / purchase of raw materials. District Supply and Marketing Society is engaged in market promotion and facilitating marketing of Swarnajayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojna (SGSY) and Self Help Group (SHG) products. There are nearly 8000 SHG that have been formed over the years. Sabai Grass Development Corporation was set up in 1994 to provide improved varieties of Sabai seeds and implements to women engaged in cultivation and trade. The bank caters to the farm credit establishment of the farmers through its 15 branches and 52 affiliated LAMPS.

For marketing of the product of the rural people the organization has established marketing channel with ORUPA (Orissa Rural & Urban Producers Association) and other enterprises. The Mayurbhanj Sabai Processing and Marketing Co-operative Society were established at the behest of the Government of Orissa with the main objective of improving the economic well-being of Sabai grass growers in the district.

Statistical Regression Results 

 An analysis has been made to know the effect and significant contribution of indicators towards income from Sabai grass for economic development in the study area. For multiple regression analysis Independent variables taken are

            In most variables the calculated value of the coefficient (Beta) in the regression equation is either negative or insignificantly different from zero. It shows that with increase in income from Sabai grass, the role of transportation (X4) followed by sale (X1) increases. Therefore the factor transportation (X4) and sale (X1) have more effect on the dependable variable (Y) i.e. income from Sabai grass than other factors. It is found that transportation and sale plays important role to increase income from Sabai grass in the study area. The factors like Market trend (X2), Land holding (X3), Age (X5), Education  (X7) and Occupation (X8) have negative impact on income from Sabai grass. It is also observed that the factor family size (X6) has positive impact on income from Sabai grass.

The correlation between a set of obtained scores and same score obtained from the multiple regression equation is called coefficient of multiple correlation. It is designated by `R’. Thus the correlation between Income from Sabai grass and other eight independent factors is 0.586. It means that scores in income from Sabai grass predicted from a multiple regression equation containing independent factors X1,X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7 & X8 correlate 0.59 with scores obtained in dependent factor  Income from Sabai grass(Y).  Here R2 is 0.343; this shows 34% of the total variance of dependent income from Sabai grass is associated with the independent factors.            Tabulated value of t-test for transportation (X4) and sale (X1) are more significant and have significant contribution towards income from Sabai grass.

It is also found that, in most variables the calculated value of the coefficient (Beta) in the regression equation is either negative or insignificantly different from zero. It shows that with increase in total income (Y), the land holding (X3) followed by transportation (X4) increases. Therefore the factor land holding (X3) and transportation (X4) have more effect on the dependable variable (Y) i.e. total income than other factors. Hence it is concluded that land holding and transportation are important factor and have significant contribution to increase total income in the study area. The factors like Market trend (X2), Family size (X6), Education (X7) and Occupation (X8) have negative impact on total income. It is also observed that the factor like Sale (X1) and Age (X5) have positive impact on total income.

The multiple correlations between Total Income and other eight independent factors is 0.562. It means that scores in Total income predicted from a multiple regression equation containing factors X1, X2, X3, X4, X5, X6, X7 & X8 correlate 0.56 with scores obtained in factor Total Income (Y).  Here R2 is 0.316; this shows 32% of the total variance of income from Sabai grass is associated with the independent factors.     Tabulated value of t-test shows that the Land holding (X3) is more significant and has significant contribution towards Total Income in the study area.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

for the factors in case of Income from Sabai grass

Source of variation

Sum of Square

Degree of Freedom

Mean Square

F-statistic (Calculated)

Between Row

4035.4979

209

19.3134

1.1322

Between Row & Column

49851.5556

1680

29.5735

1.7336

Between Column

21329.2392

8

2666.1549

156.2920**

Residual (error)

28522.3164

1672

17.0588

 

Total

53888.0534

1889

28.5273

 

Tabulated value of F-test at 5% level of significance for (8,209) degree of freedom = 1.9384 and tabulated value of F-test at 1% level of significance for (8,209) degree of freedom = 2.5113. In case of the above table only between the indicators (column) is significant. The calculated value is 156.2920. This shows calculated `F’ value is more than tabulated `F’ value both at 5% and 1% level of significance.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)

for the factors in case of Total Income

Source of variation

Sum of Square

Degree of Freedom

Mean Square

F-statistic (Calculated)

Between Row

4102.3328

209

19.6284

1.1505

Between Row & Column

49554.0000

1680

29.4964

1.7289

Between Column

21027.8042

8

2628.4755

154.0623

Residual (error)

28526.1958

1672

17.0611

 

Total

53656.3328

1889

28.4046

 

 

Tabulated value of F-test at 5% level of significance for (8,209) degree of freedom = 1.9384 and tabulated value of F-test at 1% level of significance for (8,209) degree of freedom = 2.5113. In case of the above table only between the indicators (column) is significant. The calculated value is 156.2920. This shows calculated `F’ value is more than tabulated `F’ value both at 5% and 1% level of significance. In order to know the effect of different factors, viz. (i) fertilizer consumption per hectre of gross cropped area in kgs of nutrients (ii) actual rainfall (in mm) received during the period of cropping (iii) area under Sabai grass crop in hectre a time series analysis has been carried out with the use of a multiple linear regression model. The analysis considers the relevant secondary data of Mayurbhanj District for a period of 5 years i.e. from 2003-04 to 2007-08 being collected for the season of Kharif and Rabi. The analysis has been made for Kharif (Autumn & Winter) season over a period of 5 years taking variable  Y = Production in quintals, X1= Area in hectare, X2= fertilizer consumption per hectare of gross cropped in Kgs of nutrients, X3 = Annual rainfall in mm. and also the analysis has been made for Rabi taking into consideration the above variables. It should be mentioned here that the data on fertilizer consumption have been collected in the form of total consumption of fertilizer per hectare of gross cropped area for each period of cropping i.e. Kharif and Rabi. The analysis was carried out with the total consumption of fertilizer.

Table -A shows linear form for kharif season. From the analysis ,it is found that R2 = 0.984, Adj R2 = 0.870, D-W statistic = 3.181 and F = 9.939. Further, it is seen that intercept value C0 = 80904.922, regression co-efficient of area C1 (coefficient of the variable X1) = -454.962, co-efficient of fertilizer consumption X2 (i.e. regression co-efficient C2) = 11.246 and co-efficient of rainfall X3 (i.e. regression co-efficient C3) = -11.101 and the corresponding standard errors are 14254.836, 121.907, 3.839 and 3.847 respectively. Also, the corresponding t-statistics are found as (5.676), (-3.732), (2.929) and (-2.886).

Table-B shows linear form for Rabi season, it is found that R2 = 0.895, Adj R2 = 0.581, D-W statistic = 2.464 and F = 2.850. Further, it is found that the intercept value C0 = 5007.695, regression co-efficient of HYV area C1 (i.e. co-efficient of the variable X1) = -57.489, regression co-efficient of local area C2 (i.e. co-efficient of the variable X2) = 0.235 and regression co-efficient of rainfall C3 (i.e. co-efficient of the variable X3) = 1.323 and the corresponding standard errors are (1995.389), (72.387), (1.124) and (0.651) respectively. Further, corresponding t-statistics are (2.510), (-0.794), (0.209) and (2.032) respectively.

 

Tabulated value of F-test at 5% level of significance for (3,5) degree of freedom = 5.4095 and tabulated value of F-test at 1% level of significance for (3,5) degree of freedom = 12.060. Similarly, tabulated value of t-test at 5% level of significance = 2.776 and for 1% level of significance = 4.604, where degree of freedom. = 4.

 

ANALYSIS TABLE-A (LINEAR FORM) FOR KHARIF SEASON

Crop (Sabai grass)

Intercept ‘C0’

C1

C2

C3

R2

Adj R2

D-W statistic

F-statistic

Kharif

80904.922

-454.962

11.246

-11.101

0.968

0.870

3.181

9.939

(14254.836)

(121.907)

(3.839)

(3.847)

[5.676]

[-3.732]

[2.929*]

[-2.886]

 

Note : 1)The value given in (  ) is the value of standard error and the value given in [  ] is the value of `t’. statistic.

             2) * represents the significant of the co-efficient at 5% level of significance.

             3) ** represents the significance of the co-efficient at 1% level of significance.

 

ANALYSIS TABLE-B (LINEAR FORM) FOR RABI SEASON

Crop (Sabai grass

Intercept ‘C0’

C1

C2

C3

R2

Adj R2

D-W statistic

F-statistic

Rabi

5007.695

-57.489

0.235

1.323

0.895

0.581

2.464

2.850

(1995.389)

(72.387)

(1.124)

(0.651)

[2.510]

[-0.794]

[0.209]

[2.032]

 

Note: 1)The value given in (  ) is the value of standard error and the value given in [  ] is the value of `t’. Statistic.

             2) * represents the significant of the co-efficient at 5% level of significance.

             3) ** represents the significance of the co-efficient at 1% level of significance.

 

From the analysis table-A, it is found that F-statistics is significant both at 5% and 1% level of significance, where tabulated value is more than calculated value and R2 is more than 0.5 for the Sabai grass crop (Kharif season). It indicates strong relationship between dependant and independent variables. Here, the t-statistic for fertilizer is significant only at 5% level of significance and the corresponding regression co-efficient is significant. Also, the corresponding standard error is significant. It is observed that only in case of fertilizer the t-statistic tabulated value is close to calculated value at 5% level of significance which shows fertilizer only provides contribution to the production of Sabai grass. Use of Durbin-Watson, d-statistics show that no auto correlation is present.

 

From the table-B, it is observed that that calculated F > tabulated F both at 5% and 1% level of significance. F is significant and R2 in more than 0.5. It indicates strong relationship between dependant and independent variables; t-statistics for all the variables are showing insignificant both at 5% and 1% level of significance and the corresponding regression co-efficient are also insignificant, which shows no variables provide more contribution to the production of Sabai grass. Here use of Durbin-Watson, d-statistics show that no autocorrelation is present.

 

For Kharif season fertilizer consumption have more contribution towards the production of Sabai grass, For Rabi season it is observed that all the variables have more or less impact on production of Sabai grass in the study area. Computation of Durbin-Watson , d-statistic shows that no autocorrelation is present.

 

Discriminant Analysis.

 

Discriminant analysis is a method of distinguishing between classes of objects. The values of various attributes of an object are measured and a rule (function) is applied that assigns a classification to that object. The discriminant function arrives at coefficients, which set the highest possible ratio.

 

Table C Standardized Classification Discriminant Function Coefficients

[In case of Income from Sabai grass]

Factors

Income from Sabi Grass

1

2

3

4

5

Sale

1.960

1.994

2.336

2.739

2.724

 

 

 

Market Trend

5.741

5.139

5.033

5.005

5.168

 

 

 

Land Holding

0.357

0.283

0.250

0.183

0.198

 

 

 

Transportation

0.052

0.080

0.150

0.143

0.158

 

 

 

AGE

2.974

3.048

3.121

2.428

2.201

 

 

 

Family Size

9.334

9.794

9.616

10.351

10.273

 

 

 

Education

-0.363

-0.523

-0.478

-0.478

-0.498

 

 

 

Occupation

9.358

9.215

8.208

7.450

7.488

 

 

 

Constant

-55.217

-52.905

-47.792

-43.667

-43.881

 

Discriminant analysis is useful for situations where one need to build a predictive model of group membership based on observed characteristics of each case. The procedure generates a discriminant function (or, for more than two groups, a set of discriminant functions) based on linear combinations of the predictor variables that provide the best discrimination between the groups. The functions are generated from a sample of cases for which group membership is known; the functions can then be applied to new cases with measurements for the predictor variables but unknown group membership. On average, people in family size play more roles for economic development in case of income from Sabai grass. A researcher wants to combine this information in a function to determine how well an individual can discriminate between the two groups.

Table D Standardized Classification Discriminant Function Coefficients

[In case of Total Income]

Factors

Total Income

1

2

3

4

5

Sale

2.508

2.579

2.715

2.270

2.846

 

 

 

Market Trend

4.884

4.873

5.043

4.468

4.881

 

 

 

Land Holding

-0.029

-0.097

-0.007

0.125

0.097

 

 

 

Transportation

0.096

0.158

0.173

0.142

0.184

 

 

 

AGE

2.245

2.675

2.671

3.413

2.445

 

 

 

Family Size

10.375

11.022

11.054

11.952

10.312

 

 

 

Education

-0.342

-0.414

-0.490

-0.334

-0.455

 

 

 

Occupation

9.545

9.507

8.513

8.145

7.558

 

 

 

Constant

-53.604

-55.584

-50.302

-51.096

-43.702

The procedure generates a discriminant function (or, for more than two groups, a set of discriminant functions) based on linear combinations of the predictor variables that provide the best discrimination between the groups. The functions are generated from a sample of cases for which group membership is known; the functions can then be applied to new cases with measurements for the predictor variables but unknown group membership. On average, people in family size play more roles for economic development in case of total income. The researcher found that population size and economic information are important. Discriminant analysis allows estimating coefficients of the linear discriminant function, which looks like the right-hand side of a multiple linear regression equation.

CONCLUSION

The result summarises that the tribals of Mayurbhanj district confront many problems like, education, income source and expenditure pattern, landed property, Government and NGOs support, marketing, packaging and transportation. The bank caters to the farm credit establishment of the farmers through its 15 branches and 52 affiliated LAMPS. Nearly, 85.7% of the people live in small family and 12.9% still maintains their traditional joint family. . The cultivation of Sabai grass is second main occupation which represents 24.8% and only 1.0% are engaged in Government service. The source of income from Sabai grass is 52.9% from the primary source and 47.1% from the secondary sources .The packaging and grading are the most important aspect of marketing any product. 76.7% of the villagers are  depends on the market, 19.0% depends on local hat, 3.3% on both market and hat and only 1.0% use themselves to grade and pack their finished product of Sabai grass for transporting to different market. Due to changes in professional status it has impact on the income. It is also found that changes in age, family size and education do not change the total income in same direction. The land holding and transportation are important factor and have significant contribution to increase total income and economic development of the district..

* Dr.U.N.Sahu, Reader in Commerce,.M.P.C (auto) College, Baripada, Mayurbhanj,757002, Orissa,Ph.No-9437218341
** Mr. Asit Ranjan Satpathy, Seemanta Engineering College,Jharpokharia, Mayurbhanj,757086, Orissa, E-mail-julu_asit@yahoo.com, Ph.No-9861242315

iPhone Applications Development in India: The Future is Bright Enough

Whenever Apple does something it does it in style! Earlier it was the MacBook and the iPod, now is the time for the iPhone, a communication device with solid music capability. The Apple iPhone not only looks brilliant with its 3.5 inches touchscreen, it also performs in an amazing manner through all its loaded functions. Be it imaging or connectivity, memory storage or navigation, the Apple iPhone is just the best gadget to lay your hands on. The device comes equipped with a plethora of games including those lifelike Java games. What’s more, it’s a third party software enabled phone, so you can easily download all sorts of games onto it. iPhone mobile application development companies programs now can also be availed for other features such as entertainment, themes and wallpaper creation, email updates, weather reports on the move, utility and business and so on. If you search the web for iPhone applications, you can now easily find a variety of apps being offered at competitive rates which are now developed by a large number of iPhone open application development companies.

For getting the best iPhone applications, you just need to browse the sites of the application development companies and find out if your requirement can be answered by them. iPhone applications development India can turn into a very reliable source for you for getting all your iPhone applications developed at the most exciting rates ensuring complete satisfaction. Most of the software development firms now outsource their application development projects to the developing nations India leading the league. In India, investment returns good results – thanks to the experienced Indian software developers who have years of experience in their field. In the arena of custom software development also, these Indian firms are continuously doing appreciable job. So, why think so deep? With Indian iPhone application development companies readily willing to offer you what you want, you just need to choose your choice and go ahead. And once you install the best application onto your device, you will experience a definite edge over your friends and colleagues! Isn’t it easy and very tempting?

This article is written by a technical writer, working at SynapseInteractive, A iPhone open applications development company in India. We offers iPhone mobile application development for a wide range of categories, such as business tools, games and many more. For more information please contact us.

Web Development India: Outsourcing Redefined

Rewinding ten years from now, we can have a clear idea about the fact that websites were only a few then. With the arrival of the web development firms and software solution service providers, the last few years have opened up new business opportunities through websites for anyone and everyone who has the courage to participate in the growing competitive online scene. Today, we will find really large numbers of websites under all categories. All websites are trying to offer something special to the people so as to mark their hold in the cut-throat online business platform in the most fruitful manner possible. If you are also thinking of exploring the treasure land of online business, first you need to conceptualize your website design and development. For that purpose, you may need to take the help and assistance of an Affordable web development firm that is also known for its quality services. If you are confused how to take the step ahead and whom to approach, then the professional web development consultants can come handy to you. They take a nominal charge and offer good direction towards helping you select the best web design and development form for you, your business. It’s also wise for you to consult with your friends and colleagues who have such experiences in the same field.

Website development is not a simple process though. It takes much pain for you if you move ahead sans a professional help. And you never know what happens to your site if you proceed like this! The internet is also a very reliable place to locate some of the most established professional Web software development and web designing firms. At just fingertips, you can get a whale of information using the web.

Web development has seen a terrific growth in the last few years. Thanks to outsourcing of design and development of such works to the developing nations which have offered us with class software development programs at small investments. Quality, satisfaction and accuracy – everything has been just tremendous with these outsourced firms. web development India is a big name in this regard.

This article is written by a technical writer, working at SynapseIndia(website development India), A Web development solutions company in India. Synapse offers affordable web development solution. For more information please contact us.

Agricultural Productivity Changes in India Under Global Marketting Scenario

Agricultural Productivity gains through capacity building, eco-friendly farming and Extension Education Reforms

By PROF. GHULAM MOHY-UD-DIN WANI.

 DIRECTOR EXTENSION EDUCATION AND DIRECTOR SAMETI,SKUAST-K,SHALIMAR POST GPO 461 SRINAGAR-KASHMIR. Home page.www.profgmwani.page.tl. Email ghulamwani1949@gmail.com wanimohyuddun@yahoo.com Phones 09419095342 09419409546

ABSTRACT

Agricultural Production has entered new era of competitive-low-cost globally oriented enterprise. The cost-benefit ratio decide the mode of Farming. Global marketing needs some changes at base level. Farmers have to be cost conscious and need new strategies of mixing various farming option like Agriculture, Horticulture, Livestock husbandry and Floriculture activities. A new model for incorporating all these fields in an eco-friendly mode is discussed. Appropriate mixed technology in tune with natural resources needed at the moment in India.. An agricultural mission for efficient Resource management should aim at bridging gap between current farm yield and potential Farm yield. Use of bio-technology and bio-informatics for identification of economically viable cropping options and combinations can not be ruled out ,however soil and environmental preservation must be kept in mind while using biotech farming options. We should talk of Eco-conducive-germplasm-base instead of high productive – germplasm, un-competable to our natural resources. All these and other aspects of future agricultural scenario in India is discussed in these pages. India with 1.09 billion people and 60% of them dependent on agriculture can not be leveled with USA who has merely339 million people and only 0.7 of them dependent or agriculture. Therefore the past trend of aping USA OR EU models of agricultural development won’t help. We have to innovate new ways and means conducive to our agrarian conditions and available resource to increase our food production for growing population in future. Some of the original thoughts of the author published as e-papers are reproduced here to suggest new innovative models.  

          a) Change of mind set We will need a change in the mechanism of technology dissemination thus a reformation model for extension education in India is proposed in these pages. More than 50% of our practicing farmers are women who are not exposed to technology new or old, thus a system of their capacity building and skill up-gradation shall be focused Agricultural and allied technologies tested and available in India have been the replications of commercial farming ventures of the west. I would dare to blame our policy planners for this vulnerable state de-affairs. They professed chemical farming when we were world leaders of organics In the past century when whole world faced the ill effects of chemical farming we are busy in advocating our forgotten options which luckily are still existing in deep and uncommunicable pockects of our country called backward pockects. Our research need a change from individual crop or commodity farming research to mixed farming approaches .My mohy model of 1992 is being quoted withmohy model of 1992 is being quoted with out reference quite often by those whose hollowness of innovative ideas is responsible for our defective policies.

                b).Unfinished agenda needs,aims and goals

 Needs

       1 . Appropriate mixed technology in tune with natural resources.

       2. An agricultural mission for efficient Resource management, bridging gap between current farm yield and potential Farm yield.

      3. Use of bio-technology and bio-informatics for identification of economically viable cropping options and combinations.

       Emphasis

      We should talk of Eco-conducive-germplasm-base instead of high productive – germplasm, un-competable with our natural resources. Economic Farming which means cost effective use of Soil Water resources No air/water pollution

 c). NUTRIENT RECYCLING SYSTEM OPTIONS

      The chemical fertilizers are to be replaced by use of agricultural waste materials, Plant residues, aquatic weeds, left out materials, post harvest wastes, green manure, rainy season over grown vegetation, or abundant vegetation, green weeds, city drains, human excreta, animal manure, forest wastes, agriculture left out substances, bio-mass, bio-fertilizers, stall wastes & even pigeon beats etc. Nutrient cycling system has to be evolved first by analysing soil status of each agro-climatic zone . The integrated nutrient management system, has to be evolved. A new, refined, Govt-agri policy is needed. New Institutional support system, excellent marketing networks are to be proposed. For efficient land use we must wed traditional wisdom with improved technology, farmers training and profitable end products. We should advocate: a). Use of information technology to increase profits from overall farming; cropping, animal aquaculture etc. b) Analysis of available data on processing, production and its documentation for use in project preparation, policy formulation is a basic necessity.

              A new sensitive laboratory facility is envisioned for input and output quality assessment. c) Agriculture of today does not mean more production at environment cost but efficient and economic production with Environmental safeguards. INTRODUCTION Our 65% employment base is agriculture & its allied sectors like livestock We. Need in future : ? Food and environment security ? Employment generation through agrobased industry. ? Economic , balanced and hygienic food with original taste. and flavours. We are in a phase of cultural and economic transit. This transformation Process brings, New livelihood options, New production & utilization system Changed life styles & cultural habits

            I do not know how many of us know about USDA’s national Arboretum of Washington DC A 444 acre arboretum now has dropped pesticide use by 75% during 1992-96. They call it new land scope pest Management (NL PM). It was simple spot spraying i.e spray right where it is needed, i.e on diseased twig or branch or plant and only if it is needed. This shift from blanket spraying to selected sprays saved 75% of pesticide cost; other saving was through reduced labour cost and eco-risk factors.

             We need safe equipments and labour health monitoring and analysis of data. Another area which needs attention is use of less toxic pesticides. We call them bio-rational pesticides. They reduce cost by 12-32% and consist of Horticulture oils insecticidal soaps, insect growth regulators and predators.

        We talk of trainings for Information analysis, monitoring disaster, Management of floods droughts. Use of remote sensing and Global positioning system is needed. We in developing countries in future will have Industrial expansion, and more economic security..This will mean less people being attracted to agriculture or in other words agriculture becoming less renumerative. We need improved varieties, their rapid propagation through biotechnological use. We may have little options not to use biotech agriculture or mend fences between traditional, optional and modern biotechniques.

          This is where we talk now of molecular farming, using biotechnology for more transgenic crops . animals, aquaculture and, commercial floriculture. New issues in agricultural and other sciences in India are:

          1. Develop data base for patent formulations

          2. We need replacement of top down planning with gross root planning.

          3 More farmer’s participation  with reduced risks .

        4 Research in past, centered on improved seeds, irrigation, chemical use. We witnessed green revolution, freedom from hunger, but harmed environment. we have to look for alternate options for the execution of research.

        5. Extension education ,dissemination of information to farmer has to be the first concern of the public and private establishments and planners. Birds eye viewers have to be replaced with visionary professors and professionals.

       6. Farmer. farming and farm business shall be the First ranking scientific persuit investing at least an equivalent amount on it as is spend on health or nuclear establishments,.

                  Our policy should be Independent and self conscious farmers, with records of annual balances, gains and losses, risks and benefits.

     BOTTOM LINE CHALLENGE

          Bring self- reliant proud farmer trained & well versed in Agri-business

   Farmers need awareness on    

       Farming concepts and international zoo-phytosanitation recommendations and regulations.

      We need to stop WTO restrictions or options till our farming and farmers are not completely knowledge driven and economically resourceful to face the global farming competitions.

 PARADIGMS OF AGRI-EXTENSION. IN INDIA.

 Four paradigms of Agricultural extension consists of Technology transfer, prevalent since colonial times & later National Agriculture Extension Project (NAEP), reshaped in 1970-80 as Training and visit system across Asia. It involved top down approach. Its role needs discussion. The second paradigm called as Advisory work is what is present system of extension, where, government agencies, NGO and technical industries respond to farmers enquiries which we call advisory role. The third paradigm consists of Human Resource Development. This innovation helped Europe and North America. The Universities gave training to rural youth. It is these educated, trained youth which became future farmers in developed countries. What is known as outreach system of colleges and universities is still unknown in our Agricultural Research system including State Agriculture Universities. A half hearted attempt as Agri-business Agri-clinical is still to be backed with University, research, banking and economic support. Is it which can help us to increase productivity in India or Asia needs consideration? (Wani, 2008).

               Technology adoption and Impact

                     The impact of National Agricultural Research Project (NARP) (1986-92) revealed that technologies generated were few and adoption rate was not high, even then an estimated monetary benefit of Rs.2000/ per hectare was observed. Low relationship between technologies developed and adopted demands a mixed farming technology capsule as 65% of our farmer’sare small and marginal farmers. This needs a total shift to left in our agricultural extension methodology. (Reddy 2001, wani, 2008 a b c). T & V programme initiated with central assistance in state has aroused all round technological awareness among agricultural experts. Its dialogue and technology transfer from University (Scientists) to experts agricultural extension workers was nearly total revolution.

                  The (ZAREC) Zonal Agricultural advisory Research and Extension counseling was the best plate form to discuss main issues impeding agricultural development. The missionary publication of production recommendations helps a lot in transfer of technology. The presentation of production recommendations in local language is helpful in increasing productivity in many countries. (Wani, 2004) Brinjal production technology adoption in Parbani, Mahrastra was the result of social participation, risk management guarantee, marketing orientation, information websites and communication methods. (Dudhak et al 2003). Various limitation of transport, extension staff were the reasons of poor productivity gains in Malakhand agency of Pakistan. (Mohamad et al, 2003).

            The adoption of legume production technologies under Jhodpur arid conditions was low. The problems as indicated by farmers were small farm size. Small holder farmer was less interested to adopt these technologies. Non existence of market and pricing policy, risk of failure, feeding habits, social taboo and lack of Post Harvest Technology (PHT) were identified. (Yadev et al, 2003). Proper guidance or information support was the major constraint in adoption of improved Wheat cultivation in Himachal Pradesh. It contributed to 16.8% non-adoption rate among farmers. Other contributory factors were technological unawareness (13.33%) sloppy land (11.31%), farm input cost (9.41%), non availability of irrigation (8.29%) and lack of inputs (7.95%) (Puran chand et al, 2001).

                  Social Structure and Technology adoption Schedule caste farmers in Maharastra have low level of rice technology adoption. Among 150 such farmers only 12.6% had high adoption rate (Mankar et al,2004). Adoption of production recommendations of Cashew in Maharastra’s Sindhubrug district was 58% (Bhairamkar et al, 2004). Motto of extension programmes should be reach to unreached, teach to un-teached, be known to unknown (Ganesan et al, 2003) (Wani, 1998). Agricultural productivity in Czch Republic increased when information and communication in extension system was improved for small scale farmers (Slavik, 2003).

          A survey conducted among 120 farmers in Karnool district, Andhra Pradesh, India, revealed that education, social participation, scientific orientation, risk management, mass media exposure, economic and market orientation were positively and significantly correlated with the extent of adoption of recommended hybrid jowar (sorghum) seed practices by the farmers. Majority of the farmers (43.33%) had a medium level of the adoption of the recommended practices. (Kumar et al, 2005). It is suggested that five categories of factors determine the adoption of irrigation systems and are the keys to designing relevant, effective and innovative irrigation extension programmes among horticulturalists.

                 The five categories of factors are : Soil type and topography ; crop quality; sowing time; saving water and crop yield (Kaine & Beswell, 2005). We in J&K under SREP Strategic Research extension plan of Districts notice lack of information on sowing time, seed rate and fertilizer application in almost all the crops. Seed treatment awareness helped farmers to combat paddy blast (Wani, 2006, 2007). Innovative Change Methodologies for analysis of farming system, options for development & sustainable eco-friendly farm science technology are the needs of the houhour. We do have subject-matter-specialists, but the agents for evaluating the composite effect of various discipline oriented technology cover is yet to be structured. This is exactly where we should intervene and restructure the discipline, programmes and divisions of extension education in the country. Infact a total change from existing slow action, low innovative, conventional and disintegrated extension system has to be refined into analytic , managemental , social, economical, marketable system, so that the whole technology transfer could be evaluated in terms of productivity and monetory gains per hectare.

                Different cropping and livestock patterns and combinations need to be evaluated & monitored. The impact analysis of wide range of Agricultural technology transfer be it training, entrepreneurship or agri business is needed, both before and after technology application. The available research results have to pierce the farmers farming practices. Non – adoption is the result of our low productivity levels per unit of land. Inspite of tremendous yield gains the per unit profitability has not raised the economic conditions of our farmers.

       Our farm economy still fluctuates between season’s, rainy years and among regions. Now for any widespread gains from technology, it is essential to know its impact and adoptability rate. It is therefore necessary to develop new technologies after considering socio-organizational arrangements, local existing soil, water, human needs and resources. The local skills need to be known and refinement is made to improve profitability. Our experience under IVLP showed a net productivity gains of 2 q/hac in rice production by improving local village driven plough. Similar innovative ideas local technologies with improved or exotic one gave good results in development of profitable farming . (Wani, 2004,2003,

 Suggested References:

Badri-OA; 2001. School of Rural Extension Education and Development, Ahfad University for Women, Omdurman, Sudan. 18:1, 35-50; 20.

Balasubramanian and Thamizoli, 2003, Social differentiation in the horizontal transfer of knowledge: a case study from south India, J.of Agri.Edu.and Extn.2003, 9:2,51-60;3.

 Bharali et al, 2004. Influences of extracellular calcium and iron on membrane sensitivity to bisulphite in the mosses.Jr. of Bryology, vol.26No.1 of March 2004, pp 53-59

Carrasco et al, 2003, Absorbing the shocks: the case of food security, extension and the agricultural knowledge and information system in Haryana, Cuba.Journal of Agri. Edu.Extn. 2003, 9:3,93-102;9.

Davis et al, 2004, Extending technologies among small-scale farmers in Meru, Kenya: ingredients for success in farmer groups.Jol.of Agri.Edu.and Extn.2004;10(2):53-62.

Ganesan et al, 2003,Reaching the unreached: basics of extension education, Tamil Nadu Agri.University, Coimbatore -641 003, India. Reaching the unreached: basics of Extn.Edu. 2003:xii+387.

 Kaine and Beswell, 2005, An innovative approach to irrigation extension in horticulture, Acta –Horticulture.2005; (672): 177-183.

 Khalache and Khaire, 2007, Social-ersonal and socio-economic characteristics of the fig growers and information sources used by them in fig cultivation technology, International J. of Agri.Sci.2007;3(1):258-20.

Kibwana- OT, 2000. Bringing together local and outside knowledge for innovation in land husbandry in Tanzania and Ethopia – a comparative case study. Jr. of Agri. Edu. & Extn. 7:3, 133-1

.

Outsourcing Alternatives to a Politically and Economically Unstable India

Outsourcing: A love / hate relationship for U.S. I.T. professionals.  Ask the average employee in any I.T. organization, and hearing about fear of jobs going to India and China is almost unavoidable.  Although many have started the move toward business service management (BSM) to address the chaotic labor trends, I.T. labor itself still consumes over one-third of I.T. budgets.  This figure is perfectly in line with a recently published Gartner report stating that 37% of the typical I.T. budget goes directly to personnel costs.  What are you as the CIO going to do to manage this frenzied situation?  Is outsourcing, or “offshoring,” the answer?  

 

How can you outsource your operations to a foreign country and still maintain compliance with best practice frameworks such as ITIL or MOF?  How do you maintain Sarbanes-Oxley, PCI, or HIPAA compliance when utilizing 100% offshore resources with far less control?  

 

Almost everyone in the I.T. sector has at least one story about various operational tasks being “offshored” to India, and no call-center, network operations center (NOC), or infrastructure team has been immune to rumors of jobs going offshore.  No longer are the cities of Mumbai and Delhi simple manufacturing hubs and suppliers of raw materials.  The country is home to some of the largest corporate call centers and development centers in the world.  In late 2005, the Indian outsourcing workforce numbered 350,000 individuals.  That total is now estimated at well over 800,000, with many new positions going unfilled due to the lack of qualified candidates.

 

Eleven years ago this month, USA Today published an article titled “Can political instability be eliminated in India?”  Looking solely at the news of the past six months, the answer to that question is an obvious NO.

 

The trend toward a twenty-first century India has not fostered the sort of sweeping political change one might expect from the world’s most populous democracy.  Moreover, the unwillingness of the Indian government to more robustly combat intellectual property theft is the stuff that causes your legal team to lose MANY nights of sleep.

 

Recession has made its way to India as well.  The 4 December 2008 issue of The New York Times ran an article discussing the wave of outsourcing firms scaling back their daily operations in India due to the unhealthy global financial climate.  As of this week, the Indian rupee is at a record low.

 

India makes a strong case as the “global back office,” yet it has failed to produce an environment supporting front-office operations such as product innovation and corporate strategies.  The prevailing thought of the past 5 years has been that Indian outsourcing firms are masterful in the art of efficiency and product development measures.  What about now?

 

On 7 January 2009, Indian stocks took a nosedive in the wake of announcements by Satyam Computer Services that corporate profit summaries had been inflated for several years.  The announcement by Satyam’s chairman and co-founder that he had directly falsified accounting documents on an ongoing basis has thrown the entire Indian outsourcing industry into dramatic turmoil.  As a provider of back-office services for many of the largest banks and healthcare institutions in the world, the result of the SATYAM crisis is nothing short of devastating.

 

By Friday, January 9, 2009 news sources were reporting that interim CEO Ram Mynampati does not have faith that the firm can continue past the next few weeks.  Mynampati stated they were working to find the liquidity to pay current employees, suppliers, and creditors. 

 

In less than a week, the crisis has crossed the Pacific Ocean and hit U.S. shores.  Auditing giant PricewaterhouseCoopers is expected to pay a hefty price for the emerging fraud.  The auditor has been responsible for Satyam financial oversight for over eight years, and Satyam investors are expected to go to court in attempts to recoup losses. According to legal sources from within India, most are likely to attack PricewaterhouseCoopers directly rather than Satyam.

 

The tragic events of November 2008 in Mumbai clearly show that the concerns go much deeper. Over 200 people were killed in the attacks, and the entire central business district in Mumbai ground to a halt for several days, resulting in billions of dollars in lost labor.   Within one week of the attacks, five high-profile Indian cabinet members were forced to resign.  On 1 December, TIME magazine posed the question “Will India’s Government Survive the Mumbai Massacre?”

 

Many companies are selecting alternate destinations, and some trends show an actual migration OUT of India to other knowledge-rich environments such as Singapore, The Philippines, Armenia, Pakistan, and various Latin American countries.  Companies requiring less interaction with the public (for example, a software development center) may select destinations where English is not the primary language, or in some cases, is not a language spoken at all.  Companies building public-facing operations such as helpdesks or call centers are being forced to reconsider earlier decisions, and many are moving to more English-centric countries like Taiwan and the Philippines.

 

Key players are making a strong case for themselves as these trends develop.  In the Western Hemisphere, Costa Rica and Peru have marvelous records of rock-solid software development and high customer satisfaction ratings.  In Europe, Armenia is emerging as a major powerhouse and model of efficiency.  In Asia, many are discovering that the almost-perfect English spoken in Taiwan and the Philippines combined with some labor costs equal to or less than those in India make each a destination of choice.  In fact, the November 30 edition of The New York Times Magazine featured a four-page article touting the viability of the Philippines as a premier outsourcing destination.

 

While China, Russia, and Korea have fantastic talent pools, the labor cost and in some cases difficulty dealing with local and national governments make them less attractive to some U.S. based companies.

 

While being one of the lesser-mentioned yet more historically colorful European countries, Armenia is a virtual strongbox of extraordinary talent.  As mentioned by the CIA World Factbook, 18% of Armenia’s current population is under the age of 15, meaning the talent pool is poised for huge growth.

 

Armenia declared independence from the former Soviet Union on 21 September, 1991 and is now a bastion of political stability (a particularly attractive factor for the O&O industry).  A healthy GDP real-growth rate of 13.7% makes Armenia one of the top producers in the EU.

 

Additionally, Armenia is rapidly becoming a major challenger in the index of relative economic freedom. As reported by the Heritage Foundation, the change has been nothing short of amazing. In 2000, Armenia ranked 84th in relative economic freedom. As of late 2008, Armenia ranked 28th – ahead of European powerhouses Spain (31st) and France (48th) and just behind Sweden at 27th.

 

Hong Kong ranked #1 on the list for 2008, with the U.S.A. at #5.

 

The appraisal of economic freedom is based on 50 economic indicators within the following categories: capital flow and foreign investment; financial systems; monetary, budget, and trade policies; salaries and prices; government interference in the economy; property rights and regulations; and black markets.

 

Many outsourcing experts are finding a presence in Armenia quite successful for many of their clients and partners.  The cooperation offered by the Armenian government to ease immigration and visa restrictions for executives and other technical employees traveling between Armenia and the United States has been a huge advantage to many, and this is compounded by great satisfaction with the talent pool offered by this European country.

 

Having a stable presence in Armenia is but one example of alternatives to the current Indian instability.  There are numerous other alternatives as well, and diversification is going to be the keystone to success over the next few years.  

 

As pointed out by one CEO, “…the logical approach for today’s global economy is to diversify.  Many of my contacts who previously invested heavily in Indian resources are already asking for new alternatives, and we believe the best approach is to simply avoid the old cliché of “putting all the eggs in one basket.”

 

Singapore has emerged as another destination of choice, with an extremely stable economy and government as well as strictly enforced laws on intellectual property rights.  Perfect English is widely spoken, and the country is considered one of the top-five technical innovators in the world.

 

Originally founded as a British trading colony in 1818, Singapore joined the Malaysian federation for a short two years ending in 1965. Now completely independent, Singapore is undeniably one of the most prosperous, diverse, and cosmopolitan destinations in the world and has a per capita GDP greater than that of many “leaders” in Western Europe.  

 

In 2006, the World Bank rated Singapore as “the most business-friendly economy in the world.”  Immediately behind London, New York, and Tokyo, Singapore is the fourth largest foreign exchange trading hub in the world.  

 

The country is home to three major state universities:  The National University of Singapore, Nanyang Technological University and Singapore Management University, resulting in a literacy rate over 93%.  The island nation accomplishes it all with a geographic size only three times that of Washington, DC.

 

The Philippines and U.S.A. share not only a very similar legal system but the English language as well. Companies in the legal sector consider this fact especially attractive. Once a U.S. colony, the Philippines has a workforce that is already familiar with many legal factors not readily obvious to those in countries with less of a seasoned relationship with the United States. 

 

A few facts about the Philippines:

 Population of 91,000,000 as of 2008  550,000 college graduates per year on Average  Educated labor pool of Over 30,000,000  Entry-level I.T. salaries average $2500—$8000 USD P.A.  Top-quality CBD real-estate costs average $17 PSF  95% literacy rate  English as a primary language

 

One of the top-three law firms in the world relocated their entire network operations center from Chicago to Fort Bonifacio, Manila, in 2003. That operation has since grown much larger, also encompassing legal operations and software development.

 

From 1997 to 2008, companies such as Citibank, Fluor, IBM, Convergys, Telus, HSBC, Dell, JP Morgan, Siemens, and Deutsche Bank have all opened major offshore facilities in the Metro Manila area of the Philippines.

 

More than just a country filled with call centers, the Philippines is home to dozens of offshore operations involving network operations, wireless services, energy, shipping and logistics, legal and medical transcription, finance and accounting, and software development.

 

The country is now recognized by some as the top destination of choice in Southeast Asia. In 2006, the country generated in excess of $3.0 billion in outsourced operations, and that figure is expected to more than double by the end of 2009. The Philippine government has targeted a global market share of 8 to 10% in the O&O market by 2011.

 

Regardless of where you go, there is no “single best answer” to every situation.  When looking for that “trusted advisor” to help you make your next outsourcing, offshoring, development, or infrastructure decision, you need a firm with the knowledge, process, devotion, and proven direction to make it a success.

 

Only by in-depth knowledge of your core business can any firm help in an effective O&O engagement. You need a firm that endeavors to understand and optimize how the process will enhance not only the I.T. department, but all other business units as well.

 

 O&O will continue to gain momentum over the next few years, regardless of what happens in the Indian subcontinent.   The recent events in India and the surrounding territories are but a small stumbling-block to an ever-evolving global business model.  

 

Businesses today realize that three very important factors have emerged in the outsourcing and offshoring industry: 

O&O cannot and should not be based on the “one size fits all” methodology anymore.   Diversification is the key. Every situation is different. Unless you are prepared to invest in learning foreign tax and H/R systems, unfamiliar holidays, unique infrastructure, governmental regulations, and possibly a few foreign languages, you NEED a trusted advisor on your side.

 

Companies and their investors who spent the billions of dollars (and thousands of man-hours) building outsourced operations based solely in India have found that trying to separate the technology from the actual business process is not only foolish—it is futile.   Outsourcing and offshoring can provide limitless possibilities, but they must be done with precision , care, and proper distribution.  Rather than outright withdrawal from offshoring operations, now is the time for diversification.

 

“There is timing in the whole life of the warrior, in his thriving and declining, in his harmony and discord. Similarly, there is timing in the Way of the merchant, in the rise and fall of capital. All things entail rising and falling timing. You must be able to discern this..” 

Miyamoto Musashi , 1645

 

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Jack Lesley is a seasoned, dynamic, and well-educated I.T. professional with decades of experience in the US as well as Asia-Pacific and Australia.


He has particular expertise in the areas of infrastructure, outsourcing, offshoring, ITIL, MOF, SOX, PCI, and HIPAA – as well as how they all interact with I.T.


Jack currently resides in Houston, Texas with his wife Sandra, his son Brint, and two vicious Jack-Russell Terriers


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Research and Markets: Environmental Economics in India – Examining the Interface Between Economic Agents & Environment …

Research and Markets: Environmental Economics in India – Examining the Interface Between Economic Agents & Environment …
DUBLIN—-Research and Markets has announced the addition of the “Environmental Economics in India” report to their offering.

Read more on Business Wire via Yahoo! Finance

Bharatbook.com : Outsourcing and Offshoring of e learning in India

e learning Outsourcing 2009 Advantage India Report  ( http://www.bharatbook.com/Market-Research-Reports/e-learning-Outsourcing-2009-Advantage-India.html )  presents the competitive landscape of providers in the e-learning space in the India.

Today, the Indian e-learning outsourcing industry consists of both, third-party providers and offshore delivery centers of international e-learning providers and consulting firms. Apart from pure-play e-learning firms, companies from fields such as IT, BPO, publishing and domestic retail education have made a foray into the market, mostly in the last decade. Given the fragmented nature of the Indian industry, it     estimates that there are no more than 35 e-learning providers who have more than 100 employees. There are well over a hundred other smaller providers in this space.

We have grouped the service providers in the Indian e-learning industry based on their service capabilities and maturity. Our analysis has thrown up 4 distinct clusters, including the market leaders – the pioneers. It is their movements that will determine the strategic direction for the rest of the players in the industry in the next 4 years. It features in-depth insights and analysis, including the competitive standing of India as an outsourcing destination, the services being outsourced, the client markets, and providers and their strategies for the future. Key market trends are also discussed, in light of certain opportunities and challenges – including the implications of the global economic slowdown on the industry.

Key chapters of the report are as follows :

1. Executive Summary
2 Introduction
2.1 Definition
2.2 Key Components of e-learning
2.2.1 Content – key to learning
2.2.2 Technology – the enabler
2.2.3 Services – the value-add
2.3 Typical users of e-learning
2.3.1 Corporates – e-learning is an imperative
2.3.2 Education – widening the reach
2.3.3 Government – stimulus to public education
3 Global e-learning Industry
3.1 The Global Market
3.1.1 Size of the global e-learning market
3.1.2 Stage in industry life cycle
3.1.3 Value chain analysis / value system
3.1.4 The corporate market
3.1.5 The education market
3.1.6 The government market
3.2 Leading International e-learning Service Providers
4 e-learning Offshoring
4.1 Outsourcing / Offshoring of e-learning
4.1.1 Offshoring drivers
4.2 India as the Preferred Offshoring Destination
4.2.1 Reasons
4.2.2 Competition
5 India’s Offshoring Industry
5.1 Evolution of the Indian e-learning Industry
5.2 Indian e-learning Offshoring Industry
5.3 Industry Maturity
5.3.1 Industry billing rates & margins
5.4 Service Provider Groups
5.5 User Segment Focus
5.6 Service Focus
5.7 Client Markets
5.7.1 Sector focus
5.8 Geographical Concentration in India
5.9 Offshore Centers
5.10 Competitive Positioning of Service Provider Groups
5.10.1 Pioneers continue to exploit their edge
5.10.2 Challengers – growing service maturity, but lacking scale
5.10.3 Contenders – poised for growth
5.10.4 Specialists – niche, but lack international focus
5.11 Nature of Competition
5.12 Key Industry Challenges
5.12.1 Workforce woes
5.12.2 Data security
5.12.3 Lack of industry regulation
5.13 Critical Success Factors
5.13.1 Front end capabilities
5.13.2 Access to skilled resources
5.13.3 Innovation in products, services and process
5.13.4 Cost optimization and operational efficiency
6 Trends & Insights
6.1 Strategic Environment for the Global e-learning Market (PESTEL)
6.1.1 Political futures
6.1.2 Economic futures
6.1.3 Socio-cultural futures
6.1.4 Technological futures
6.1.5 Environmental futures
6.2 Revenue and Employment Growth Estimates
6.3 Trends and Strategies in the Indian Offshoring Market
6.3.1 Becoming ‘learning’ companies
6.3.2 Focusing on new regions for revenue generation
6.3.3 Client sector focus
6.3.4 Productizing for alternate revenue streams
6.3.5 New offerings to move up the value chain
6.3.6 Content solutions
6.3.7 Strategic partnerships/acquisitions – the clear way forward
7 Research Methodology
7.1 Data collection
7.2 Data analysis
8.1 Research publications
8.2 Recent custom projects 
 
Contact us at:

Bharat Book Bureau
Tel: 91 22 27578668
Fax: 91 22 27579131
Email: info@bharatbook.com
Website: www.bharatbook.com

Bharat Book Bureau facilitates companies to take the lead of their industry with best practice business strategies and intelligence, through a unique combination of published reports, databases, country reports, company profiles and customized research services. Bharat Book Bureau provides strategic information tools to the executives, business analysts, and knowledge managers that will help them to probe into and support critical, timely business decisions and strategies.

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iPhone Application Development in India and Elsewhere

iPhone is the new name of communication, latest trend to be in touch. This power packed Apple communication cum entertainment gadget has been the highest sold high end device since the time of its launch. It’s been three years the iPhone has been in the scene, everyday bringing satisfied users. In just these three years, the Apple has sold millions of iPod units around the world. Not only for its features, but also for its eye-catching look the Apple iPhone has been such a glorious product. Everything has been so meticulously incorporated in the phone that you won’t make any complaint ever. Being a 3G enabled gadget, the iPhone also supports third party software applications thus making you do more with one. Thanks to the iPhone mobile application development companies which have fully understood this iPhone advantage and brought so many efficient apps for the same. Now, using these apps, one can easily feel the edge of romancing the most unique and intelligent software applications available.

iPhone open application development is a highly profitable area for the software developers. Understanding the potentials of these development programs, many a conventional software developers have inclined towards this specialized segment. The developing nations like India and China have been the finest examples that have brilliantly led the iPhone open application development drive. In these countries, you would find such a large number of iPhone application development experts who have a whole lot in their kitty exclusively for you.

iPhone applications development India and China experts are so popular at the present date because of their accuracy of applications and affordable rates. They can now be approached online for any type of application development needs and for your pleasure they have all the solutions readily available. Even if something is not, they will custom make it exclusively for you. So, what’s the wait for? If you really have an eye on the iPhone, simply purchase it and opt for the applications development programs that are easily available to you. Surely, you will be taken to an experience of a life time – riding on the iPhone feathers.

This article is written by a technical writer, working at Synapse Interactive, a iPhone open application development company in India. We offer iPhone mobile application development for a wide range of categories, such as business tools, games and many more. For more information please contact us.

Web Development Solutions and India: What a Melting Pot!

Web development solutions are now being development by the software development firms all over the world. At the behest of a highly demanding web propelled business scene, all are now heavily relying on intelligent software applications thus bringing efficiency to work retaining the quality of tasks performed. Productivity has reached a new level of late – thanks to the incorporation of the latest tools and technologies in a completely professional manner. So, if you are thinking of venturing into a new business mission, then you need not think any further. The professional web software development agencies have A to Z software and web solutions exclusively for you.

Software applications are now used not only in performing businesses; they have got equal importance among the mobile phone users. Mobile handsets with third party software support feature have benefited from these software developers who have also developed many an applications for mobile phones. Whether it’s fun, gaming, business, email or utility activity, applications for all purposes are now available through the application development agencies.

For both mobile and web applications, website development India firms have very good arrangements. Not only do they offer the best of apps, they also have the best rates for you. Of late, Indian software development firms have emerged as a very reliable name in the world by offering versatile, cost effective and high quality web based software development services. Logo design, content management, search engine optimization are some of the associated services these firms offer to clients these days.

The most encouraging thing about these Indian companies is that offer additional services without charging much from the clients. Clients’ satisfaction is their priority and hence they believe in offering only the best. According to market trends and various surveys conducted in the web based development arena, it has become completely clear that Indian web development programs come really come cheaper than the global competitors. That’s the reason all the software and web development nations are now outsourcing their projects to the fertile Indian land for the most cost effective solutions. And this move has been advantageous for many people than one.

SynapseIndia is a leading web development solutions provider. We offer affordable web development to clients across the globe. For more information please contact us.

Web Development in India: Glorious Future

Website development has come a long way since the first seed of web development initiative was sown. Thanks to the grit shown by the web development professionals who have tested and tried all types web development platforms during the last few years or so. Starting with basic web development platform like HTML, we now have advanced tools like Flash, PHP, .Net, Joomla! framework for different web development requirements. What was impossible until a few years back, now can be availed everywhere across the globe and interestingly all under one’s budget. Affordable web development has become a specialty of most of the web development firms today. Many people heavily rely on the web for finding out the affordable web developers who can work efficiently on their projects. The internet is full of information about the most reputed and trusted web development firms those extend their web development solutions for all types and sizes of clients. No matter what your business specialty is, you can now easily avail the best of service despite the nature of your business.

Web software development needs very careful attention thoroughly. Web site and software development professional understand the need of having an efficient and result-giving software unlike no other do. Therefore, they put their best efforts so as to create the smartest web software applications and development programs.

If you are confused about where to proceed and whom to approach for a reliable web development solution, then web development India can be your perfect destination. As a rich software and web development nation, India has done a tremendous job for all sorts of projects. Also, the India outsourced firms have shown immense possibilities in the segment. For custom web development requirements also, there are no affordable and established alternatives to the India based software development firms. Not only the India based developers offer the complete value for your money invested, they also breeze a relationship beyond that professional angle. Just having your trust on one of the reputed names, you can also approach towards ensuring the ‘best’ for your site, your business! All you need to do is to think smart, choose smarter!

This article is written by a technical writer, working at SynapseIndia(website development India), A Web development solutions company in India. Synapse offers affordable web development solution. For more information please contact us.