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The Tech Awards laureate 2010: International Development Enterprises India

International Development Enterprises India Category: BD Biosciences Economic Development Award Country: India http://www.ide-india.org International Develop…
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Meet music students from Cité Soleil in Haiti. This Canadian-backed education project is led by the organization CONOCS. It offers youth a path forward and a…
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Solar water heaters have been busy supporting the Buddha enterprises layout – solar water heater, green energy – heat pump industry

Heat Pump Network HC  It is reported that Beijing announced, including Solar Energy Solar water heater industry, including the scope to include policy support. Be in 2010 Home Appliances Support to further enhance the countryside and include more and more provinces and cities to support the range of solar energy and domestic solar water heater market has been magnified. In response, the city wanted to seize a number of solar water heater business policy wind, speed up the layout of the national market.

Prospect of the industry Average annual growth rate of three percent

no problem 2010 tender of consumer-electronics to the countryside should be considered the most competitive in solar water heaters, in the last 26 at the home appliances to the countryside in 2010 of the new business tender at the tender, a total of more than 300 types of enterprises to participate in the tender. Of these, solar water heater up to 186 enterprises, accounting for over 6 percent.

Companies flocked to one of the reasons is the industry’s amazing expansion rate. Statistics show that last year, domestic solar water heater Sell Scale up to 57.85 billion yuan, up 34.5%. Professional Committee of China’s solar thermal experts, as Environmental protection Product, huge potential for development of solar water heaters, solar water heaters to maintain an average 5 year growth rate of 30% no problem.

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In the country to promote Energy Emission reduction, the context of a low carbon economy, supporting solar energy throughout the adopted measures, the policy also makes solar water heater industry confidence in the future. This reporter has learned, recently, Beijing formally set out the solar energy industry to develop new rules, new rules on the new residential use of solar water heaters in subsidies. In addition, Hebei, Shandong, Yunnan, Nanjing and other places have also introduced similar policies in support of including solar energy, including solar water heater industry.

Buddha enterprise operations Every step to speed up layout

Beauty Kitchen appliances solar projects relevant person in charge Dingmin Jiang said that the current appliance industry has been rarely seen an increase of 30%, while the solar water heater is one of them. He said, beauty is developing solar water heater business development plans, and they will take full advantage of existing resources and beauty brand influence, the beauty of solar water heaters into the national market quickly.

Professional manufacturer of solar water heater electrical Shunde O-lun, director of marketing Lichong Liang also said that although the countryside in the last year, sales of home appliances enterprises is not very good, but backed by strong technological advantages, and to continue to strengthen channel construction and brand promotion background, he believes Australia will usher in London in 2010 a large market opportunities, “a great national market, we need a step by step layout, compaction results.”

Gas with industry giants million and also quietly joined the ranks of solar water heaters compete. Million and the Group Marketing Xu Weiguo, deputy director told our reporter that the company has developed pressure split solar water heater, solar water heaters, water quality problems successfully solved. Million and will rely on existing brands and channel advantages, speed up the national market, especially the rural market penetration.

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Putian shoes export bases in government and enterprises work together

Fujian has launched the first batch of 15 key commodity export base construction, construction of shoes in Putian City is the main export base, which give the city shoes bring new opportunities. Right now, Putian City, the export base is firmly grasp the role of governments, businesses join hands to work together to develop Putian shoe industry.

Footwear industry is the largest industry in Putian City, the city has more than 2,100 shoe enterprises, employing about 500,000. In 2009, footwear industry, though suffering the severe impact of the international financial crisis, the city’s total exports of footwear industry is still an increase of 5.6% year-on-year growth of 1 to 2 up to 20.4%. Held at the end of March 2009, Putian City, industry news and top ten top ten economic personalities of private industry presentation ceremony, the Chinese city of Putian Shoes Apparel Grand Opening, Putian shoes brand “Clorts” stands for “Made in China” image in the U.S. CNN on the hit, China’s first R & D center settled in Putian shoes and other three industry related news and shoes. The 2009 Top Ten Private industrial economy in Putian City, people, Shoe on the account 2. In Putian, shoes and arts and crafts industry two years in advance, respectively, 15 months ahead of schedule to achieve the “Eleventh Five-Year” established 20 billion yuan, 50 billion as targeted.

At present, the use of the city of Putian in Fujian footwear export base into an opportunity to break the boundaries of administrative areas, the establishment of Hanjiang, Licheng, Chengxiang radiation around the county as the center of regional footwear industry clusters, improve industrial cluster development plan . Enterprises with the right conditions to help them through the listing and financing, to increase their investment, joint mergers and other means to achieve leapfrog development, a shoe industry in the region “aircraft carrier” or “flagship.” To fulfill the provincial government “to support small and medium business development on a number of opinions” and a series of preferential policies, and further support the growth of shoes to create a good environment for enterprise development. In Putian municipal government’s strong support of the March 31 Ka Wah Investment Guarantee Corporation, Putian City, the establishment, the company registered capital of 99.99 million yuan, and the actual capital 99.99 million yuan, is actually the capital of Putian City, the largest security company , Putian City is the first footwear industry Investment Guarantee Corporation, which will effectively address the establishment of small and medium sized footwear company in Putian the problem of financing, specifically for the footwear industry to facilitate the efficient financing of small and medium business security services.

Putian Shoes Detection Center is a state of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) and China National Accreditation Board for Conformity Assessment (CNAS) approved, authorized and approved by National Key Laboratory of footwear testing, set testing, research and development, manufacturing standard , information gathering, personnel training and international exchanges in one, is currently the largest and most comprehensive footwear project professional testing organization. Center has projects worth more than 3,000 full-million advanced testing equipment and testing standards or methods, fair, scientific, accurate and efficient conduct of 43 finished shoes and shoe in leather, plastic, rubber, textiles, metal accessories such as conventional physical properties, physical security, chemical safety and health performance of more than 400 projects antimicrobial testing. Centre in accordance with international standards ISO/IEC17025 establishment and implementation of laboratory quality management system, access to CMA CNAS accreditation and certification, which can track the international advanced technology, and participated in formulating and revising national standards and industry standards, with relevant technical level of leadership. Putian City, proposed to further develop “national footwear test center”, “R & D center in China shoe”, “China’s shoe Information Center”, Fujian footwear industry technology development (Putian) base role, and actively promote enterprise creation Province level enterprise technology centers, to strengthen this cooperation, push forward scientific and technological achievements into footwear, and constantly improve their own self-innovation and design and development capabilities. And guide enterprises to actively participate in a variety of standards, promotion of quality system certification, the introduction of personnel training, enhance the management level, commitment to technology innovation, strong and big business, for every year one or two national brands, a number of provincial Flies.

Putian Footwear Association is a non-governmental associations, the development process in the city shoes play an important role. Right now, the association is constantly facilitating transformation and upgrading the city’s footwear industry, shoe industry market to enhance the core competitiveness. Meanwhile, the constantly expanding areas of work, organization and the Taiwan Association for in-depth industry docking pilot sought to Taiwan have a new breakthrough.

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Solar water heaters Enterprises Marketing Strategy Transformation

The current trend of serious and delicate world economy, is likely the next few years was the evolution of w-type situation, that is, short-term recovery of the economic downturn and alternating. Subversion of the original U.S. financial crisis dominating the global financial system, undermined the developed countries especially the U.S. financial sector’s confidence and reputation system to re-establish and restore confidence will take time. For some export-oriented enterprises, to stop-go economy is the world’s people lack confidence.

    As the world’s largest solar water heater manufacture and use of power, China’s solar water heater production technology and product quality has been an internationally recognized, solar water heater production technology and even Li Norit output abroad. Last year, solar energy heat utilization industry outgoing data at the annual meeting: 2009, China solar water heater production has reached 42 million square meters, domestic sales of about 57.85 billion yuan, up 34.5%; exports also reached 2 100 million U.S. dollars, an increase of 66.6%, but full of uncertainty the world economic situation, people have to export Nie Bahan for the solar water heater.

    International demand for solar energy companies adhere to the domestic downturn

    Since the financial crisis, the United States, European Union, Japan and other developed economies have been offering a series of programs to stimulate the economy, governments and central banks of the “joint” with the “BRIC” to represent emerging market economies, government collaborative intervention, is on the factors leading to the formation of a global recession some kind of “encirclement” is bound to lead to economic recession, caught in long-and short-term recovery alternate position.

    The arrival of the financial crisis, resulting in continued appreciation of the RMB exchange rate been higher, which exports large enterprises in China solar energy industry will undoubtedly bring a lot of adverse effects. Experts suggest that the impact of the financial crisis, the international demand will have 1-2 years of downturn, which will force the solar industry have to adjust to domestic-based strategy. As the largest exporters of solar energy, New Energy Co., Ltd. Shandong power Norit head also said that in the situation of uncertainty, will continue to adhere to domestic-based.

    Solar still control the development of the domestic economy like a duck

    Although the experience of three decades of market-oriented institutional transition, but transformation of the Chinese market so far is far from complete, government involvement and intervention in the economy is still super ability. This powerful ability to not only the economy at all levels of government micro-control of the main activities of the extent, but also in the government’s control of key resources. In addition to the national product accounts for nearly one-third of fiscal revenue, the government also controls almost all the land and mineral supply. These are obviously the Chinese economy and the United States, Europe and other mature market economy, the biggest difference. As our economy is still in control of government policies within the scope, then the face is still grave and delicate economic situation, there is no reason to panic.

    The development of the national good situation for the development of solar energy industry, laying the foundation of national policy “appliances to the countryside”, “New Energy Law” and local wave and building integrated solar solar energy industries are to duck to water. Some experts predict that the “green economy + structural growth” will be the main theme of China’s economy in 2010, all of the risks the world economy can hardly affect China’s economic development process. As a new energy in the most current environmental and economic value and development Masamori solar industry, the future of China’s green economy will be the sea of blue.

    Financial crisis forced the industry to upgrade

    China is the world’s largest solar manufacturing and consuming countries, international leading technical level. However, the absence of stringent industry access standards, also caused a large number of “artisanal”, “guerrilla-style” business access, waterfront famous, prestigious companies beside a flood, leaving behind a series of product quality, service, Industry can not solve such issues as the credibility of the industry reshuffle and restructuring is urgent.

    Industry experts believe that short term economic crisis will put pressure on solar water heater industry, but it will certainly speed up industry restructuring and reshuffling in regulating the healthy development of the solar energy industry is important, and perhaps this will be the development of solar energy produce a turning point in upgrading. According to reports, the financial crisis, the large and medium brands will be by adjusting the business strategy, implementing marketing strategies in transition, developing marketable products or even to attract foreign investment to alleviate the pressure. For technical strength with no autonomy, lack of brand awareness workshop-type small enterprises, is bound to be difficult in this crisis to go, only out of the market. This further escalation of the solar energy industry upgrading of vital importance.

    Domestic policy for solar energy industry “flood gate”

    Financial crisis struck, the Chinese government has taken active measures to put substantial financial resources in rural areas by accelerating infrastructure construction, ecological construction and other ways to stimulate domestic demand. As to the mission of the solar energy industry, environmental protection, industry experts and entrepreneurs are actively seeking a breakthrough on the market seeking to solve the financial crisis impact. Solar energy can be selected for the “home appliances to the countryside” list, the industry has long awaited. End of the year 2008, the State Council General Office of the sonorous green light, has aroused strong repercussions in the industry. The introduction of this policy has been to promote solar energy herald the arrival of spring.

    With home appliances to the countryside, major escalation of solar water heater brand concept, innovative products. If power Norit launch of the “Blue and White Porcelain” series, will have strong “Chinese style” element into the product appearance, creating solar energy to the fashion sense of taste to upgrade times. Launched a nationwide force Norit 15,000 solar rescue centers for solar energy services to achieve seamless coverage nationwide. Policy in the countryside under the impetus of China’s solar water heater industry, the domestic sales of about 57.85 billion yuan, up 34.5%, not only promoted the development of solar energy industry, has achieved the requirements of stimulating domestic demand.

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Information Technology and the Business Communities: A Case Study of Small-scale Business Enterprises in Nigeria

Introduction

Due to globalization of the economy, emergency of information technology, growth of the Internet and other communication network, growing diversity of business transactions and increased competition, companies are changing the way they communicate with new processes that sharpen business performance. The Internet is becoming the foundation for new business models, process and new ways of knowledge distribution (Laudon K.C and J.P. Laudon, 2000).

                Small-scale enterprises now use the Internet and networking technology to conduct more of their work electronically, reliable linking factories, offices and sales forces around the globe (Dave C. 2000). This communication evolution is governed by applied infrastructures with converged services and integrated application (Lucas H.C and B. Jack, 1994). The convergence of information technology is an important trend influencing both current and future markets, industry and technology (James, A.O, 2004). Companies such as the shops, banks and institution interviewed, are extending these networks to suppliers, customers and other groups outside the organization to enable them respond instantly to customer demands and market shifts.

Undoubtedly, information technology is bringing about changes in organization that make firms even more dependent than in the past when it depends solely on the knowledge, learning and decision making of individual employees. Besides, customer service, operation, products and marketing strategies, and distribution are heavily dependent on information technology (Brain K and C. Stacey, 2001).

This research work examines the impact of information technology on the economics of small-scale business enterprises. This is to ascertain the level at which information technology has transformed business processes for specific and applications; efficient business management, crime rate reduction, job creation and improved security of information systems. This will help make available the right kind of information at the right time place for optimum utilization of available resources to enhance the quality of life in the human society.

 

Material and Method: In the study, a statistical approach was adopted. Responses from the various business/institutions; shops, factories, eatery, markets, banks, fuel station, bakery, schools, cyber cafe, hospital, poultry, boutique, salon, phone call centers, guest houses and sport centers via the questionnaire in some selected cities in Nigeria for over 11 months in 2008 were technically examined and conclusion drawn in line with the hypothesis formulated.

 

Theoretical Background

The discipline of information theory came into focus with Claude E. Shannon’s classical paper, “A mathematical theory of communication” in 1948. This theory deals with the amount of information and does not handle the meaning of information. Similarly, the theory failed to provide necessary help in the design of an information system. As a result, the initial interest on information theory declined. However, the discipline starts to gain widespread acceptance only in the last few years. This is attributed to the fact that information technology now provides the support necessary to build an information system that serves best for some specific and application (David M.K, 1992).

                Information technology, as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. Basically, information technology deals with the use of electronic computers and computer software to convert, store, protect, process, transmit and securely retrieve information. Examples of information technology include; personal digital assistant, personal computers, telephones, televisions etc (Brain K.C and C.S. Stacey, 2001).

                Today, the terms information technology has ballooned to encompass many aspects of computing and technology, and the term is more recognizable than ever before. The end objective is to make the effective and efficient use of information to resolve uncertainly and enhance productivity at each level; individual, society and government (Charlse W.L.H, 2001). On this theoretical background is the hypothesis formulated.

                Hypothesis: Two types of hypothesis were formulated in this study; Null hypothesis (Ho) and Alternatively hypothesis (H1).

Null Hypothesis: Information Technology does not have positive impact on small-scale business enterprise.

Alternatively hypothesis: Information technology has positive impact on small-scale business enterprises.

Decision Rule: When the observed chi-square (X2) is greater than the critical chi-square (X2) from tables of chi-square, Hi is accepted and Ho is rejected and vice versa. This decision is similar to (Salami A and A.O. Usman, 2008).

 

Data Analysis and Interpretation of Results

The data from this research were analyzed and results interpreted in line with the research questions;

 

Research Question 1: Does the Introduction of Information Technology have impact on small-scale business enterprises?

 

Table 1: Impact of Information Technology on Business Growth and Income Flow

S/N

ITEMS

Strongly

Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly

Disagree

Row

Total

1.

Information technology has improved the standard of small-scale business enterprise

120

(73)

92

(72)

28

(48)

16

(62)

256

2.

Every unit of a business has benefited from Information Technology

70

(55)

80

(53)

17

(36)

23

(46)

190

3.

Information Technology is of no positive Impact to small-scale business enterprises

12

(80)

15

(79)

103

(53)

150

(68)

280

4.

Information Technology has attracted more customers to all business enterprises

65

(42)

67

(41)

10

(28)

5

(36)

147

5.

Information Technology is meant for larger scale business enterprises and not for small-scale business enterprises.

20

(36)

27

(36)

30

(24)

50

(31)

127

 

Column Total

287

281

188

244

1000

*Observed X2 = 463.3, critical X2 = 21.026, µ =0.05, df =12.

From Table 1, the expected frequencies in brackets are calculated using the formula (Egbule J.F and D.O. Okobia, 2007).

               

E  =  Row total x column total ————————– (1)

                     Grand Total

 

Where, E = expected Frequency and Grand Total = 1000

 

 

ROW I

For observed frequency = 126, using equation (1);

 

For observed frequency = 92,

 

For observed frequency  = 28,

 

For observed frequency = 16,

 

ROW II

 

For observed frequency = 70,

 

For observed frequency  = 80,

 

For observed frequency = 17,

 

For observed frequency = 23,

 

ROW III

 

For observed frequency = 12,

 

For observed frequency = 15,

 

 

For observed frequency = 103,

 

For observed frequency = 150,

 

 

ROW IV

 

For observed frequency = 65,

 

For observed frequency = 67,

 

For observed frequency = 10,

 

For observed frequency = 5,

 

 

ROW V

 

For observed frequency = 20,

 

For observed frequency = 27,

 

For observed frequency = 30,

 

For observed frequency = 50,

 

Applying the chi-square (X2) statistic as presented in (Omorogiuwa, 2006);

……………………………..(2)

 

Where, O = observed frequency and

                 E = expected frequency

 

By substituting into equation (2) above;

 

 

 

 

The degree of freedom is given by

df = (r-1) (c –1) …………………………….(3)

 

Where,                   r = Number of Rows and

                                 c = Number of Columns

 

From table 1, r = 5, and c = 4. \ df = (5-1) (4-1) = 12

Critical value of chi-square X2 = 21.026 (from tables) at a testing value µ = 0.05

 

These results shows that the observed chi-square X2=463.2 (from calculation), is greater than the critical value of chi-square X2=21.026 (from tables), at a testing value of µ =0.05 and degree of freedom df = 12. This indicates a significant relationship and it implies that information technology has a positive impact on business growth and generally increases income flow.

 

Research Question 2: Does the introduction of Information Technology in small-scale

         business enterprises provide more job opportunities for  

                                      unemployed Nigerians?

 

Table 2: Job opportunities using Information Technology

S/N

ITEMS

Strongly

Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly

Disagree

Row

Total

1.

Information technology has provided a source of income to many young school leavers

201

(149)

152

(119)

35

(78)

29

(77)

417

2.

Information Technology provide holidays jobs for many students

116

(107)

101

(86)

39

(52)

44

(56)

300

3.

Drastic Reduction of mass unemployment since the application of Information technology in business.

40

(101)

33

(81)

98

(49)

112

(52)

283

 

Column Total

357

286

172

185

1000

*Observed chi-square X2 = 273.6, critical X2=12.592, df = 6, µ = 0.05.

 

                The results of table 2, show that Null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected and alternatively hypothesis (Hi) is accepted. The observed value of chi-square X2 equal 273.6 (from calculation not shown for convenience), is greater than the critical value of chi-square X2 = 12.592 (from tables), at a degree of freedom df = 6, using a testing value µ= 0.05. This indicates a significant relationship implying that the introduction of information technology in business provides more job vacancies for unemployed Nigerians.

 

 

Research Question 3: Of what relative impact is the introduction of Information

  Technology in efficient business management?

 

 

Table 3: Information Technology in efficient business management

S/N

ITEMS

Strongly

Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly

Disagree

Row

Total

1.

Information technology enhance proper planning and execution of business strategies

102

(90)

96

(92)

17

(28)

30

(35)

245

2.

Information technology helps to improve on the skills of business-men

90

(71)

90

(72)

6

(22)

7

(28)

193

3.

Business-men are now more time conscious with the advent of information technology

78

(74)

87

(75)

15

(23)

21

(29)

201

4.

Information Technology discourages unwarranted journey.

97

(132)

102

(135)

76

(41)

86

(52)

361

 

Column Total

367

375

114

144

1000

*Observed chi-square X2 = 120.4, critical X2 = 16.919, df = 9, µ = 0.05

 

                The results show that the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected while the alternatively hypothesis (H1) is accepted. The observed chi-square X2 = 120.4 is greater than the critical value of chi-square X2 = 16.919 [from tables], at a degree of freedom df = 9, using a testing value of µ = 0.05. This indicates a significant relationship, which implies that the introduction of information technology helps in efficient business management.

 

 

Research Question 4: Has the introduction of information technology reduced the rate of

 Fraudulent activities in business?

 

Table 4: Information technology to fight business fraud

S/N

ITEMS

Strongly

Agree

Agree

Disagree

Strongly

Disagree

Row

Total

1.

Information technology is a weapon for combating fraudulent activities in business

76

(58)

90

(54)

18

(42)

25

(55)

209

2.

Information technology encourages dishonesty in business

39

(78)

45

(72)

17

(57)

112

(75)

283

3.

Only the rich can effectively utilize information technology to fight crime

25

(66)

32

(61)

86

(49)

97

(64)

240

4.

The use of information technology assist in reporting fraudsters to law enforcement agencies

136

(74)

89

(69)

12

(54)

31

(71)

268

 

Column Total

276

256

203

265

1000

*Observed chi-square X2 = 320.5, critical chi-square X2 =16.919. df = 9; µ = 0.05

 

The results show that alternatively hypothesis (H1) is accepted and the Null hypothesis is rejected. The observed chi-square (x2=320.5) is greater than the critical value of chi-square (x2 = 16.919 from tables) at a degree of freedom df = 16 using µ = 0.05. This indicates a significant relationship, which implies that information technology has reduced the rate of fraudulent activities in business.

 

Discussion

The findings of this study provide useful answers to the research questions. On the impact of information technology resources on business growth, general income flow and job creation, results of the study show that a majority of small-scale enterprises have immensely benefited in these areas. It was obvious that some of the respondents engage in retailing of GSM materials and other information technology resources, alongside their goods and services. This invariably, contributes to business growth, general flow of income and provision of jobs for the unemployed.

                On the impact of information technology on business and efficient time management, some respondents generally agreed as seen in Tables 1 to 4 using the alternative hypothesis method that it was positive. However, it was discovered that inspite of the use of information technology for business promotions, most business men still lack efficiency in service delivery. This may be attributed to poor business skills or inadequate background. It is therefore not surprising that positive changes in business management are still not achieved. However, it could be hoped that modern information technology will help to sharpen the sense of business and time management skills.

 

Conclusion and Recommendation

In conclusion, information technology has improved small-scale business enterprises in Nigeria. In order to consolidate on the present level of achievement of information technology in business, much more improvement must be welcomed. These include; improvement in the level of information technology services rendered to business enterprises, wide coverage (especially in the rural areas), reduction in tariff and better connectivity.

In line with the research findings, it is recommended that information technology service providers should intensify effort to make maximum use of the high penetration by business enterprises. This invariably, will help to enlighten the populace on the benefits attached to the applications of information technology.

                The tariff of all the service providers is too high. Consequently, this reduces the number of users that go online for Internet marketing. In order to reverse this trend, it is recommended that the charge deducted by the service providers should be reduced to encourage more small-scale business enterprises in Nigeria.

 

References

 

Brain K. W and Stacey C. S (2001): Using Information Technology: A practical Introduction to computers and communications, 4th Edition, Mc Graw-Hill Companies Inc, New York, USA. Pp 78-94.

 

Charlse W.L.H (2001): Global Business, 2nd Edition; McGraw Hill Companies, New York. Pp 100-132

 

Dave C etal, (2000): Internet Marketing strategy, Implementation and practice, pearson Education Limited, England.

 

David M. K (1992); Management Information Systems, 2nd Edition, Mc Grow Hill companies inc, USA.

 

Egbule J.F and Okobia D.O (2007): Research methods in Education for Colleges and Universities, Kmensuo Educational Publishers, Agbor. Chapter 3.

 

James A. O.B (2004): Management Information Systems: Managing Information technology in the Business enterprises, 6th Edition, McGraw Hill Companies Inc, New York USA. Chapter 5 & 6.

 

Laudon K.C and. Laudon J.P (2000): Management Information Systems: Organization and Technology in the Networked enterprises, 6th Edition Prentice – Hall, Inc, USA.

 

Lucas H. C and Jack B (1994): “The role of Information Technology in organization design”. Journal of management information systems 10. No. 4. pp 56-89.

 

Omorogiuwa O.K. (2006): Research and Applied statistics for the behavioural sciences: An introduction. Mindex Publishing Company Limited; Benin City. Pp 43-48

 

Salami A.O. and Usman O.A. (2008): The socio-economic impacts of global system for mobile communication (GSM) a university students, Journal of Economic Theory 2 (2): 63 – 70.

 

Anyasi I. F and Imoize A. L
Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ambrose Alli University,
PMB 14, Ekpoma, Edo State, Nigeria.