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The Global Dialogue Podcast, Ep. 2: International Development Week

The Global Dialogue is a series of discussions about news and events shaking the world, hosted by Marwa Siam-Abdou and Trinh Theresa Do. This week’s talk is …

Film 5/5: On the 14th June 2012 Arup hosted the exhibition and award ceremony for the ‘Resilient Cities’ competition, run in partnership with Engineers Witho…

Q&A: What jobs can an anthropologist major find, outside of teaching?

Question by ihcuids: What jobs can an anthropologist major find, outside of teaching?
I am seriously thinking about going back to school and was wondering if you all could help me think of jobs an anthropologist major might qualify for, outside of teaching?

Best answer:

Answer by quixoticalthoughts
Emphasis in Sociocultural Anthropology: development, community organizing, policy analysis, and social research.

Linguistic Anthropologists: inter-cultural communication, language revitalization, and literacy programs.

Emphasis in Archaeology: Federal and State agencies and private cultural resource management firms.

Biological and Medical Anthropologists: health related occupations and traditional research

More:
—Health and Human Services —
Advocate
Health Science Administrator
Physician
Social Worker
Family Service Counselor
Job Counselor
Public Health Educator
Transplant Registry Database Manager
Genetic Counselor
Medical Anthropologist
Social Service Agency Planner

—Research/Education —
Academic Advisor/Counselor
Collections Manager
Foundation Program Manager
Museum Curator/Technician
Anthropologist
College Professor
Genealogist
Museum Education Director
Archaeologist
Computer Simulation Model Designer
Librarian
Paleontologist
Archivist
Contract Archaeologist
Linguist or Scientific Linguist
Art Conservator
Ethnologist
Marketing Researcher
Social Science Analyst
Behavioral Science Advisor
Field Archaeologist
Media Planner
Teacher, Elementary/Secondary
Bilingual/Bicultural Program Specialist
Forensic Anthropologist
Multicultural Education
Specialist/Director
Teacher of English as a Second Language (ESL)
Vocational Teacher

–Government/Public Service–

Bureau of Indian Affairs Researcher
Immigration Inspector
Community Development Officer
Cultural Resource Manager
International Agency Representative
Probation Officer
Cultural Artifact Specialist
Foreign Affairs Officer
National/State Park Interpreter
Congressional Committee Staff Director
Friend of the Court
Caseworker
Park Service Supervisor/Director
Social Insurance Representative
Coroner/Medical Examiner
Head Start Program Director
Peace Corps Area Director
State/Federal Government Policy Analyst
Urban Planner

—Business —
Actuary
Environmental Impact Assessment Researcher
Loan Officer/Bank Officer
Staff Training Specialist
Advertiser
Human Resources Manager
Management Consultant
Technical Writer
Biographer
Industrial Psychologist
Management Consultant
Tour Guide
Corporate Communications Consultant
Insurance Claims Adjuster
Marketing Manager
Travel Agent/Guide
Employee Relations Specialist
International Visitor Escort/Consultant
Media Specialist
Travel Consultant
Employment Recruiter
Journalist
Personnel Management Specialist
Union Legal Counsel

Add your own answer in the comments!

Crime Scene Investigation & Fingerprinting circa 1965 US Agency for International Development

more at http://quickfound.net/links/military_news_and_links.html A police training film produced by USAID, primarily for Latin American countries. “U.S. Agen…

Read the transcript: http://to.pbs.org/qBDpBv In “Good Fortune,” filmmakers Landon Van Soest and Jeremy Levine explore how international efforts to alleviate…
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Electric Bicycle Industry: China Market Trends, Size, Share and Forecast Report 2012-2015 Available at ResearchMoz.us

Electric Bicycle Industry: China Market Trends, Size, Share and Forecast Report 2012-2015 Available at ResearchMoz.us











ResearchMOZ


Albany, NY (PRWEB) May 11, 2013

Researchmoz presents this most up-to-date research on China Electric Bicycle Industry Report, 2012-2015. The report focuses primarily on quantitative market metrics in order to characterize the growth and evolution of the China Electric Bicycle Industry.

Chinese electric bicycle manufacturers went through a painful ordeal in 2011. The circular for rectifying the electric bicycle industry issued by the Ministry of Public Security, the Ministry of Industry and Information Technology, the State Administration for Industry and Commerce, and General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine, the rising price of raw materials like lead-acid batteries and the slowly growing demand because of market saturation depressed the electric bicycle industry (http://www.researchmoz.us/china-electric-bicycle-industry-report-2012-2015-report.html) into low-speed development from a boom in 2010. The output of electric bicycles increased by only 4.8% YoY to 30.96 million units in 2011, with the growth rate slipping by 28 percentage points over 2010. The slow growth looks to continue into 2012.

Amid the overall industry downturn, the strong get stronger and the weak fade away, with the acceleration of industry consolidation. The leaders like Yadea, AIMA and Xinri have started to further expand the market share by virtue of their edges in capital, technology, production scale and brand influence, while a large number of small-sized firms see the squeezed market space and plummeting market share and may face merger or bankruptcy. As a whole, the industry also embraces golden opportunity for development, though the majority of enterprises encounter a crisis. Firstly, the quality of such components as battery and motor needs to be improved, and the energy-saving and environment-friendly features of Chinese electric bicycle products wait to be enhanced. Once these problems are addressed, the enterprises will rid themselves of the intense homogeneous competition, enhance their product profitability and effectively explore the international market; secondly, the uncertainty of domestic industrial policy and the imperfect management system hamper the industry development. As the State improves the management mechanism of electric bicycle and issues new standards for product quality, the Chinese electric bicycle industry will enjoy huge development space.

Along with the increasingly fierce competition, some manufacturers like Xinri and Aima began to tap into central market instead of focusing on the Yangtze River Delta and Bohai Economic Rim to seize the initiative. They tend to establish production bases closer to the consumer market, and Shangqiu, Henan and Xiangyang, Hubei are expected to become new manufacturing bases of electric bicycle.

The report not only introduces the electric bicycle industry in China, Europe, the United States and Japan, but also highlights the electric bicycle business of 28 domestic manufacturers including Jiangsu Yadea, Jiangsu Xinri, AIMA Hi-tech, Shanghai Lima and Shandong Bidewen, etc.

Buy a copy of this report at http://www.researchmoz.us/sample/checkout.php?rep_id=151755&type=S

Jiangsu Yadea, a famous electric bicycle producer in China, tops the ranking of China National Light Industry Council (CNLIC) electric bicycle industry for three consecutive years. Headquartered in Wuxi, Jiangsu, the company now owns four production bases in Wuxi, Cixi, Tianjin and Dongguan, and boasts an annual capacity of nearly 6 million electric bicycles.

Jiangsu Xinri is one of the leading electric bicycle producers and has rapidly expanded its capacity in the past two years. Its production base, which is located in Xiangyang, Hubei and boasts an annual capacity of 2 million electric bicycles, was officially put into operation in June 2011. Later in June 2012, its electric bicycle project with one-million capacity went into operation in Wuxi, when its total capacity amounted to 6 million electric bicycles per year.

AIMA Hi-tech is another leader in Chinese electric bicycle industry. It has built up new bases in Dongguan and Shangqiu in the recent two years, with both its capacity and sales volume rapidly expanding. In 2011, its electric bicycle led the industry in terms of sales volume which reached 2.6 million.

About Us:

ResearchMoz is the one stop online destination to find and buy market research reports & Industry Analysis. We fulfill all your research needs spanning across industry verticals with our huge collection of market research reports.
























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DITP Introduces new plans for pushing forward the ?Thai Kitchen to the World? Policy to Support Thai Food Market Expansion at ?THAIFEX ? 2013?,

DITP Introduces new plans for pushing forward the ‘Thai Kitchen to the World’ Policy to Support Thai Food Market Expansion at ‘THAIFEX – 2013’,













THAIFEX 2013 Logo

(PRWEB) May 07, 2013

Responding with gusto to the ongoing ‘Thai Kitchen to the World’ policy, the Department of International Trade Promotion (DITP) in collaboration with the Thai Chamber of Commerce and Koelnmesse are now well-prepared for the launch of THAIFEX – World of food ASIA 2013, the mega Asian food exhibition that is highly anticipated by global buyers and importers. Packed with potential, this exhibition is envisaged to be an ideal stage for showcasing a fascinating range of food and beverage products as well as related technologies and services. The market for Thai food exports in 2013 is targeted to expand with an increase of 10%.

Mr. Suwipan Thisyamondol, Deputy Director General of the DITP, stated that, “The Ministry of Commerce has implemented a strategy to promote and develop Thai food exports in line with the “Thai Kitchen to the World” policy. This is to promote the country’s image as well as to pump up the competitive advantage potential of Thai commodities including agricultural products, food & beverages and catering businesses, both in Thailand and overseas. In response to this strategy, the DITP has pressed on with a proactive export plan to promote the market expansion of Thai food products via multiple approaches. Such approaches include conducting programs to enhance the qualities of both goods and operator efficiencies, searching for new channels for trading and exporting frozen food to European and Asian markets, accompanying trade delegations for business negotiations abroad, and awarding the ‘Thai Select’ logo to certified Thai restaurateurs and products.”

Jointly organized by the three celebrated organizations under the theme “Savor the Best in Asia”, the fast-approaching THAIFEX – World of food Asia 2013 is scheduled to run from this May 22nd to 26th at Challenger 1 – 3, IMPACT Muang Thong Thani. The event aims to be an inviting stage to showcase the production potential of food & beverage products together with related technologies and services which will pave the way further towards international arenas. This 5-day exhibition will focus on the originality and the quality as well as the safety and health properties of participating products. Such an endeavor is recognized as a major strategy to bolster the food product exports of Thailand while driving the Thai Kitchen to the world policy to achieve the set goals.

“Overall exports of Thailand this year have food products as the main export category, with the first three months (Jan. – Mar. 2013) export value totaling 4,408 USD. Currently, the Ministry of Commerce has cooperated with multiple agencies to formulate plans to boost trade and expand Thai food markets on an ongoing basis. We are confident that the organization of THAIFEX – 2013 will mark a proactive step which promises new markets of great potential, while catalyzing Thai food exports to grow by 10% as targeted,” added Khun Suwipan.

Again, this astounding event will be pulsating with a variety of activities that emphasize its being an exceptional arena for exhibiting and selling a comprehensive range of high-quality products and innovations from the food industry.

These comprise food & beverage goods, food producing technologies, together with retail and franchise businesses, and those related from the service industry. This year’s THAIFEX will host at least 3,100 booths from more than 1,100 leading companies. Exhibitors partaking in the event are from, among many others, the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Italy, Japan, Taiwan, Malaysia, Singapore, Korea, Brunei, Brazil and Turkey. THAIFEX 2013 is therefore an absolutely must-visit venue where operators in the food industry, both domestic and abroad, can create trade opportunities and meet with potential buyers worldwide.

On top of that, a slew of interesting and insightful exhibitions and activities await to impress visitors, such as the Halal food exhibition showcasing high-standard Thai Halal products, which will build confidence among buyers, importers and consumers, and the Eco and Innovative: Treat the World with Sustainability exhibition which encompasses groundbreaking or eco-friendly products by Thai exporters and other exhibitors. Joining the list are the Fairtrade certified products exhibition, activities to promote Thai-labeled foods, franchises and restaurants, the Thailand Ultimate Chef Challenge 2013 competition, and seminars on topics such as Import Control on Food of Plant and World of Food Safety.

Trade days: May 22nd – 24th, 2013, from 10.00 – 18.00 Hrs. Retail Days: May 25th – 26th, 2013, from 10.00 – 20.00 Hrs. More details about the THAIFEX – World of food Asia 2013 are available via http://www.ditp.go.th and http://www.thaitradefair.com.











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Intactivists Call on Obstetricians Meeting in New Orleans to Stop Circumcising Baby Boys

Intactivists Call on Obstetricians Meeting in New Orleans to Stop Circumcising Baby Boys











Thousands of obstetricians will be confronted by this mobile billboard as they travel to New Orleans for their annual convention.


Tarrytown, NY (PRWEB) May 02, 2013

Intactivists are gathering in New Orleans this weekend to call upon members of the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) to join the global medical community’s movement away from neonatal male circumcision.

Intact America, the organization leading the demonstration and an 11 AM press conference on Saturday, May 4, placed an advertisement in the New Orleans Times-Picayune and hired a mobile billboard, urging those who see it to “Tell America’s Obstetricians – No More Circumcision.” The sign includes the message “His Body, His Rights” to underscore the organization’s human rights concerns. Approximately 70 Intactivists are expected to participate in the demonstration, displaying banners, carrying placards, and handing out literature.

Georganne Chapin, founding executive director of Intact America, the country’s leading voice against neonatal male circumcision, said, “The leaders of ACOG apparently do not think their members – who, according to estimates, perform at least half of the one million circumcisions in the United States on unconsenting baby boys each year – should hear the arguments that have led medical authorities across the developed world to reject the surgery as unnecessary, inherently risky, and a violation of baby boys’ right to an intact body.”

Chapin commented that ACOG rejected her group’s request to rent space for an educational booth in the convention’s exhibition hall. ACOG’s rejection came in a February 21, 2013 email in which the group said male circumcision “is only indirectly related to women’s health and of only casual interest to members of ACOG.” Consequently, Intact America decided to communicate with ACOG using protesters.

“It is both sad and disingenuous that ACOG claims circumcision is of no interest to the very doctors who perform the surgery hundreds of thousands of times each year,” Chapin said. “It is also not surprising they have embraced the widely-discredited “Circumcision Policy Statement” issued August 27, 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), which lauded the benefits of circumcising infants, while admitting that evidence for such benefits is lacking, acknowledging that the risks have never been adequately studied, and ignoring the ethical problems inherent in permanently removing normal genital tissue from individuals who cannot consent.” Chapin noted further that the report advocates for insurance companies and Medicaid to pay for circumcisions.

The AAP’s 2012 pro-circumcision report, released last summer and endorsed by ACOG the same day, recently came under sharp criticism from a group of 40 international pediatricians, urologists and medical ethicists, whose article (published in the AAP’s own journal, Pediatrics), claimed the AAP task force was biased in favor of circumcision before its members even began their deliberations. The article’s authors, all Europeans except for one Canadian, said the purported health benefits cited by the AAP could be achieved by far less drastic measures than the removal of healthy, functioning tissue from the genitals of baby boys.

The physicians’ critical view of circumcision position is identical to that of Intact America. “There is growing consensus… that physicians should discourage parents from circumcising their healthy infant boys,” the physicians say, “because non-therapeutic circumcision of underage boys in Western societies has no compelling health benefits, causes postoperative pain, can have serious long-term consequences, constitutes a violation of the United Nations’ Declaration of the Rights of the Child, and conflicts with the Hippocratic oath: primum non nocere: First, do no harm.”

“Intact America’s intent for this demonstration in New Orleans,” said Chapin, “is to make sure ACOG hears and understands the ethical quagmire they have put themselves into.”











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More International Development Policy Press Releases

The Legacy of Republican Leadership in International Development

A Republican National Convention program featuring Michael Gerson, Kay Granger, Constance Berry Newman, and Condoleezza Rice. Moderated by Joshua Bolten. Co-…
Video Rating: 0 / 5

Press invitation: Women in the World Economy Forum ? Women as entrepreneurs

Press invitation: Women in the World Economy Forum – Women as entrepreneurs












(PRWEB UK) 26 April 2013

POWER SHIFT – WOMEN CHANGING THE GAME

Inaugural theme: Women as Entrepreneurs

20-21 May, 2013

You are invited to join the inaugural Women’s Forum at Sa?d Business School, University of Oxford on the theme of Women as Entrepreneurs.

Research indicates that stimulating entrepreneurship among women is necessary for continued innovation, and to combat poverty and contribute to global economic growth.

This Forum will address issues of employment, investment, consumption, and philanthropy, and explore the requirements for building a business environment conducive to successful women’s enterprises in countries around the world.

In order to guide future efforts by companies, governments, and entrepreneurs, the Forum will focus on identifying important gaps in knowledge about the motivations and obstacles surrounding women’s entrepreneurship. The discussion will focus on true challenges to unearth important underlying constraints, to identify genuinely successful programmes, rather than operate under conventional assumptions.

An invited international group of policy makers, corporate leaders, academics, and entrepreneurs will convene for the purpose of outlining a global action plan for governments, NGOs, and companies that want to support women’s entrepreneurship around the world.

Keynote speakers include:


    Cherie Blair, CBE. Founder of the Cherie Blair Foundation for Women which is doing clear-eyed, far-reaching work on training entrepreneurs in developing countries
    Wu Qing, Founder, Beijing Cultural Development Center for Rural Women, a tireless activist for women’s rights
    Muna AbuSulayman, the first Saudi UN Goodwill Ambassador, the first Saudi woman to become a media personality and an entrepreneur with her own fashion line.

Professor Peter Tufano, Dean of Sa?d Business School said: “Women’s entrepreneurship is a force for change that few of us as yet fully appreciate. Creating an environment in which women bring fresh ideas to new businesses will be key to growth everywhere in the world, during the 21st century.”

A number of the sessions are open to press.

Monday 20th May 14:00:    Keynote speech: Opening Opportunities for Women and Girls in RuralChina

                                         Wu Qing, Founder, Beijing Cultural Development Center for Rural Women.

Monday 20th May 17:30:     Oxford Union debate: This house believes that earning a living is

not entrepreneurship

                                         •    Professor Mark Hart, Professor of Small Business and Entrepreneurship, Aston Business School

                                         •    Professor Susan Marlow, Professor of Entrepreneurship, University of Nottingham Hayden Green Institute for Entrepreneurship and Innovation

                                         •    Maggie O’Carroll, Chief Executive Officer, The Women’s Organisation

                                         •    Moderator: The Honourable Michael J Beloff QC Blackstone Chambers

                                         •    Tamara Box, Head of Structured Finance, Reed Smith

                                         •    Penney Frohling, Partner, Financial Services, Booz & Co

                                         •    Averil Leimon, Director, White Water Group

Tuesday 21st May 09:00:      Welcome and keynote speech: “Technology for women’s

enterprise development: perceptions and practice” – Cherie Blair, CBE. Founder of the Cherie Blair Foundation for Women

Tuesday 21st May 15:45:      Keynote interview: Under Wraps: Fashion and Entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia – Muna Abusulayam, Media personality, UN Goodwill Ambassador, and entrepreneur

For more information on other speakers and the full agenda, please see here. Many of the sessions are operating under Chatham House Rules.

Many of the speakers will be available for interview, including: Wu Qing, Cherie Blair, Muna Abusulayman, and female entrepreneurs from both the Goldman Sachs 10,000 Women programme in China, and from the Goldman Sachs 10,000 Small Businesses Programme.

Participants will work together to identify unanswered questions, best practices, and new challenges. The result will be a research agenda that can advance opportunities for women entrepreneurs, enhancing global growth and well-being. Findings and recommendations emerging from the Forum will be available after the event on Saïd Business School’s website.

For further information or to join the Forum, please contact the Press Office:

Clare Fisher, Head of Public Relations,

Mobile: +44 (0) 7912 771090; Tel: 01865 288968

Email: clare.fisher(at)sbs(dot)ox(dot)ac(dot)uk

Josie Powell, PR Coordinator,

Mobile +44 (0)7711 387215; Tel: +44 (0) 1865 288403

Email: josie(dot)powell(at)sbs(dot)ox(dot)ac(dot)uk or pressoffice(at)sbs(dot)ox(dot)ac(dot)uk

Notes to editors

About Saïd Business School

Established in 1996 the Saïd Business School is one of Europe’s youngest and most entrepreneurial business schools with a reputation for innovative business education. An integral part of Oxford University, the School embodies the academic rigour and forward thinking that has made Oxford a world leader in education and research. The School has an established reputation for research in a wide range of areas, including finance and accounting, organisational analysis, international management, strategy and operations management. The School is dedicated to developing a new generation of business leaders and entrepreneurs and conducting research not only into the nature of business, but the connections between business and the wider world. In the Financial Times European Business School ranking (Dec 2012) Saïd is ranked 12th. It is ranked number one in the UK (7th worldwide) in the FT’s combined ranking of Executive Education programmes (May 2012) and 24th in the world in the FT ranking of MBA programmes (Jan 2013). The Oxford MSc in Financial Economics is ranked 4th in the world in the FT ranking of Masters in Finance programmes (June 2012). In the UK university league tables it is ranked first of all UK universities for undergraduate business and management in The Guardian (May 2012) and has ranked first in eight of the last nine years in The Times. For more information, see http://www.sbs.ox.ac.uk/























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Sharing Risk in a World of Dangers and Opportunities

Some cool International development policy images:

Sharing Risk in a World of Dangers and Opportunities
International development policy
Image by CSIS: Center for Strategic & International Studies
The changing nature of international development has created a growing interest in the use of development finance instruments. As the availability of soft grant money decreases and acceptance of private-sector-led growth increases, development policy is shifting away from official development assistance to focus more on investment and trade. In this context, the U.S. government must use its development finance instruments more effectively. For more go to csis.org/event/sharing-risk-world-dangers-and-opportuniti…

Sharing Risk in a World of Dangers and Opportunities
International development policy
Image by CSIS: Center for Strategic & International Studies
The changing nature of international development has created a growing interest in the use of development finance instruments. As the availability of soft grant money decreases and acceptance of private-sector-led growth increases, development policy is shifting away from official development assistance to focus more on investment and trade. In this context, the U.S. government must use its development finance instruments more effectively. For more go to csis.org/event/sharing-risk-world-dangers-and-opportuniti…

Cool International Development Policy images

Some cool International development policy images:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: SR-71 Blackbird and Space Shuttle Enterprise in the distance
International development policy
Image by Chris Devers
See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated globally in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71, the world’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 years of active service with the U.S. Air Force. On its last flight, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. At the flight’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the airplane over to the Smithsonian.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson

Date:
1964

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Materials:
Titanium

Physical Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines feature large inlet shock cones.

Long Description:
No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71 Blackbird. It is the fastest aircraft propelled by air-breathing engines. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War. The airplane was conceived when tensions with communist Eastern Europe reached levels approaching a full-blown crisis in the mid-1950s. U.S. military commanders desperately needed accurate assessments of Soviet worldwide military deployments, particularly near the Iron Curtain. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation’s subsonic U-2 (see NASM collection) reconnaissance aircraft was an able platform but the U. S. Air Force recognized that this relatively slow aircraft was already vulnerable to Soviet interceptors. They also understood that the rapid development of surface-to-air missile systems could put U-2 pilots at grave risk. The danger proved reality when a U-2 was shot down by a surface to air missile over the Soviet Union in 1960.

Lockheed’s first proposal for a new high speed, high altitude, reconnaissance aircraft, to be capable of avoiding interceptors and missiles, centered on a design propelled by liquid hydrogen. This proved to be impracticable because of considerable fuel consumption. Lockheed then reconfigured the design for conventional fuels. This was feasible and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), already flying the Lockheed U-2, issued a production contract for an aircraft designated the A-12. Lockheed’s clandestine ‘Skunk Works’ division (headed by the gifted design engineer Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson) designed the A-12 to cruise at Mach 3.2 and fly well above 18,288 m (60,000 feet). To meet these challenging requirements, Lockheed engineers overcame many daunting technical challenges. Flying more than three times the speed of sound generates 316° C (600° F) temperatures on external aircraft surfaces, which are enough to melt conventional aluminum airframes. The design team chose to make the jet’s external skin of titanium alloy to which shielded the internal aluminum airframe. Two conventional, but very powerful, afterburning turbine engines propelled this remarkable aircraft. These power plants had to operate across a huge speed envelope in flight, from a takeoff speed of 334 kph (207 mph) to more than 3,540 kph (2,200 mph). To prevent supersonic shock waves from moving inside the engine intake causing flameouts, Johnson’s team had to design a complex air intake and bypass system for the engines.

Skunk Works engineers also optimized the A-12 cross-section design to exhibit a low radar profile. Lockheed hoped to achieve this by carefully shaping the airframe to reflect as little transmitted radar energy (radio waves) as possible, and by application of special paint designed to absorb, rather than reflect, those waves. This treatment became one of the first applications of stealth technology, but it never completely met the design goals.

Test pilot Lou Schalk flew the single-seat A-12 on April 24, 1962, after he became airborne accidentally during high-speed taxi trials. The airplane showed great promise but it needed considerable technical refinement before the CIA could fly the first operational sortie on May 31, 1967 – a surveillance flight over North Vietnam. A-12s, flown by CIA pilots, operated as part of the Air Force’s 1129th Special Activities Squadron under the "Oxcart" program. While Lockheed continued to refine the A-12, the U. S. Air Force ordered an interceptor version of the aircraft designated the YF-12A. The Skunk Works, however, proposed a "specific mission" version configured to conduct post-nuclear strike reconnaissance. This system evolved into the USAF’s familiar SR-71.

Lockheed built fifteen A-12s, including a special two-seat trainer version. Two A-12s were modified to carry a special reconnaissance drone, designated D-21. The modified A-12s were redesignated M-21s. These were designed to take off with the D-21 drone, powered by a Marquart ramjet engine mounted on a pylon between the rudders. The M-21 then hauled the drone aloft and launched it at speeds high enough to ignite the drone’s ramjet motor. Lockheed also built three YF-12As but this type never went into production. Two of the YF-12As crashed during testing. Only one survives and is on display at the USAF Museum in Dayton, Ohio. The aft section of one of the "written off" YF-12As which was later used along with an SR-71A static test airframe to manufacture the sole SR-71C trainer. One SR-71 was lent to NASA and designated YF-12C. Including the SR-71C and two SR-71B pilot trainers, Lockheed constructed thirty-two Blackbirds. The first SR-71 flew on December 22, 1964. Because of extreme operational costs, military strategists decided that the more capable USAF SR-71s should replace the CIA’s A-12s. These were retired in 1968 after only one year of operational missions, mostly over southeast Asia. The Air Force’s 1st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (part of the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing) took over the missions, flying the SR-71 beginning in the spring of 1968.

After the Air Force began to operate the SR-71, it acquired the official name Blackbird– for the special black paint that covered the airplane. This paint was formulated to absorb radar signals, to radiate some of the tremendous airframe heat generated by air friction, and to camouflage the aircraft against the dark sky at high altitudes.

Experience gained from the A-12 program convinced the Air Force that flying the SR-71 safely required two crew members, a pilot and a Reconnaissance Systems Officer (RSO). The RSO operated with the wide array of monitoring and defensive systems installed on the airplane. This equipment included a sophisticated Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) system that could jam most acquisition and targeting radar. In addition to an array of advanced, high-resolution cameras, the aircraft could also carry equipment designed to record the strength, frequency, and wavelength of signals emitted by communications and sensor devices such as radar. The SR-71 was designed to fly deep into hostile territory, avoiding interception with its tremendous speed and high altitude. It could operate safely at a maximum speed of Mach 3.3 at an altitude more than sixteen miles, or 25,908 m (85,000 ft), above the earth. The crew had to wear pressure suits similar to those worn by astronauts. These suits were required to protect the crew in the event of sudden cabin pressure loss while at operating altitudes.

To climb and cruise at supersonic speeds, the Blackbird’s Pratt & Whitney J-58 engines were designed to operate continuously in afterburner. While this would appear to dictate high fuel flows, the Blackbird actually achieved its best "gas mileage," in terms of air nautical miles per pound of fuel burned, during the Mach 3+ cruise. A typical Blackbird reconnaissance flight might require several aerial refueling operations from an airborne tanker. Each time the SR-71 refueled, the crew had to descend to the tanker’s altitude, usually about 6,000 m to 9,000 m (20,000 to 30,000 ft), and slow the airplane to subsonic speeds. As velocity decreased, so did frictional heat. This cooling effect caused the aircraft’s skin panels to shrink considerably, and those covering the fuel tanks contracted so much that fuel leaked, forming a distinctive vapor trail as the tanker topped off the Blackbird. As soon as the tanks were filled, the jet’s crew disconnected from the tanker, relit the afterburners, and again climbed to high altitude.

Air Force pilots flew the SR-71 from Kadena AB, Japan, throughout its operational career but other bases hosted Blackbird operations, too. The 9th SRW occasionally deployed from Beale AFB, California, to other locations to carryout operational missions. Cuban missions were flown directly from Beale. The SR-71 did not begin to operate in Europe until 1974, and then only temporarily. In 1982, when the U.S. Air Force based two aircraft at Royal Air Force Base Mildenhall to fly monitoring mission in Eastern Europe.

When the SR-71 became operational, orbiting reconnaissance satellites had already replaced manned aircraft to gather intelligence from sites deep within Soviet territory. Satellites could not cover every geopolitical hotspot so the Blackbird remained a vital tool for global intelligence gathering. On many occasions, pilots and RSOs flying the SR-71 provided information that proved vital in formulating successful U. S. foreign policy. Blackbird crews provided important intelligence about the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and its aftermath, and pre- and post-strike imagery of the 1986 raid conducted by American air forces on Libya. In 1987, Kadena-based SR-71 crews flew a number of missions over the Persian Gulf, revealing Iranian Silkworm missile batteries that threatened commercial shipping and American escort vessels.

As the performance of space-based surveillance systems grew, along with the effectiveness of ground-based air defense networks, the Air Force started to lose enthusiasm for the expensive program and the 9th SRW ceased SR-71 operations in January 1990. Despite protests by military leaders, Congress revived the program in 1995. Continued wrangling over operating budgets, however, soon led to final termination. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration retained two SR-71As and the one SR-71B for high-speed research projects and flew these airplanes until 1999.

On March 6, 1990, the service career of one Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird ended with a record-setting flight. This special airplane bore Air Force serial number 64-17972. Lt. Col. Ed Yeilding and his RSO, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Vida, flew this aircraft from Los Angeles to Washington D.C. in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging a speed of 3,418 kph (2,124 mph). At the conclusion of the flight, ‘972 landed at Dulles International Airport and taxied into the custody of the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum. At that time, Lt. Col. Vida had logged 1,392.7 hours of flight time in Blackbirds, more than that of any other crewman.

This particular SR-71 was also flown by Tom Alison, a former National Air and Space Museum’s Chief of Collections Management. Flying with Detachment 1 at Kadena Air Force Base, Okinawa, Alison logged more than a dozen ‘972 operational sorties. The aircraft spent twenty-four years in active Air Force service and accrued a total of 2,801.1 hours of flight time.

Wingspan: 55’7"
Length: 107’5"
Height: 18’6"
Weight: 170,000 Lbs

Reference and Further Reading:

Crickmore, Paul F. Lockheed SR-71: The Secret Missions Exposed. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1996.

Francillon, Rene J. Lockheed Aircraft Since 1913. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1987.

Johnson, Clarence L. Kelly: More Than My Share of It All. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.

Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works. Leicester, U.K.: Midland Counties Publishing Ltd., 1995.

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird curatorial file, Aeronautics Division, National Air and Space Museum.

DAD, 11-11-01

• • • • •

See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Space Shuttle Enterprise:

Manufacturer:
Rockwell International Corporation

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 57 ft. tall x 122 ft. long x 78 ft. wing span, 150,000 lb.
(1737.36 x 3718.57 x 2377.44cm, 68039.6kg)

Materials:
Aluminum airframe and body with some fiberglass features; payload bay doors are graphite epoxy composite; thermal tiles are simulated (polyurethane foam) except for test samples of actual tiles and thermal blankets.

The first Space Shuttle orbiter, "Enterprise," is a full-scale test vehicle used for flights in the atmosphere and tests on the ground; it is not equipped for spaceflight. Although the airframe and flight control elements are like those of the Shuttles flown in space, this vehicle has no propulsion system and only simulated thermal tiles because these features were not needed for atmospheric and ground tests. "Enterprise" was rolled out at Rockwell International’s assembly facility in Palmdale, California, in 1976. In 1977, it entered service for a nine-month-long approach-and-landing test flight program. Thereafter it was used for vibration tests and fit checks at NASA centers, and it also appeared in the 1983 Paris Air Show and the 1984 World’s Fair in New Orleans. In 1985, NASA transferred "Enterprise" to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum.

Transferred from National Aeronautics and Space Administration

• • •

Quoting from Wikipedia | Space Shuttle Enterprise:

The Space Shuttle Enterprise (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the first Space Shuttle orbiter. It was built for NASA as part of the Space Shuttle program to perform test flights in the atmosphere. It was constructed without engines or a functional heat shield, and was therefore not capable of spaceflight.

Originally, Enterprise had been intended to be refitted for orbital flight, which would have made it the second space shuttle to fly after Columbia. However, during the construction of Columbia, details of the final design changed, particularly with regard to the weight of the fuselage and wings. Refitting Enterprise for spaceflight would have involved dismantling the orbiter and returning the sections to subcontractors across the country. As this was an expensive proposition, it was determined to be less costly to build Challenger around a body frame (STA-099) that had been created as a test article. Similarly, Enterprise was considered for refit to replace Challenger after the latter was destroyed, but Endeavour was built from structural spares instead.

Service

Construction began on the first orbiter on June 4, 1974. Designated OV-101, it was originally planned to be named Constitution and unveiled on Constitution Day, September 17, 1976. A write-in campaign by Trekkies to President Gerald Ford asked that the orbiter be named after the Starship Enterprise, featured on the television show Star Trek. Although Ford did not mention the campaign, the president—who during World War II had served on the aircraft carrier USS Monterey (CVL-26) that served with USS Enterprise (CV-6)—said that he was "partial to the name" and overrode NASA officials.

The design of OV-101 was not the same as that planned for OV-102, the first flight model; the tail was constructed differently, and it did not have the interfaces to mount OMS pods. A large number of subsystems—ranging from main engines to radar equipment—were not installed on this vehicle, but the capacity to add them in the future was retained. Instead of a thermal protection system, its surface was primarily fiberglass.

In mid-1976, the orbiter was used for ground vibration tests, allowing engineers to compare data from an actual flight vehicle with theoretical models.

On September 17, 1976, Enterprise was rolled out of Rockwell’s plant at Palmdale, California. In recognition of its fictional namesake, Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry and most of the principal cast of the original series of Star Trek were on hand at the dedication ceremony.

Approach and landing tests (ALT)

Main article: Approach and Landing Tests

On January 31, 1977, it was taken by road to Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, to begin operational testing.

While at NASA Dryden, Enterprise was used by NASA for a variety of ground and flight tests intended to validate aspects of the shuttle program. The initial nine-month testing period was referred to by the acronym ALT, for "Approach and Landing Test". These tests included a maiden "flight" on February 18, 1977 atop a Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) to measure structural loads and ground handling and braking characteristics of the mated system. Ground tests of all orbiter subsystems were carried out to verify functionality prior to atmospheric flight.

The mated Enterprise/SCA combination was then subjected to five test flights with Enterprise unmanned and unactivated. The purpose of these test flights was to measure the flight characteristics of the mated combination. These tests were followed with three test flights with Enterprise manned to test the shuttle flight control systems.

Enterprise underwent five free flights where the craft separated from the SCA and was landed under astronaut control. These tests verified the flight characteristics of the orbiter design and were carried out under several aerodynamic and weight configurations. On the fifth and final glider flight, pilot-induced oscillation problems were revealed, which had to be addressed before the first orbital launch occurred.

On August 12, 1977, the space shuttle Enterprise flew on its own for the first time.

Preparation for STS-1

Following the ALT program, Enterprise was ferried among several NASA facilities to configure the craft for vibration testing. In June 1979, it was mated with an external tank and solid rocket boosters (known as a boilerplate configuration) and tested in a launch configuration at Kennedy Space Center Launch Pad 39A.

Retirement

With the completion of critical testing, Enterprise was partially disassembled to allow certain components to be reused in other shuttles, then underwent an international tour visiting France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the U.S. states of California, Alabama, and Louisiana (during the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition). It was also used to fit-check the never-used shuttle launch pad at Vandenberg AFB, California. Finally, on November 18, 1985, Enterprise was ferried to Washington, D.C., where it became property of the Smithsonian Institution.

Post-Challenger

After the Challenger disaster, NASA considered using Enterprise as a replacement. However refitting the shuttle with all of the necessary equipment needed for it to be used in space was considered, but instead it was decided to use spares constructed at the same time as Discovery and Atlantis to build Endeavour.

Post-Columbia

In 2003, after the breakup of Columbia during re-entry, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board conducted tests at Southwest Research Institute, which used an air gun to shoot foam blocks of similar size, mass and speed to that which struck Columbia at a test structure which mechanically replicated the orbiter wing leading edge. They removed a fiberglass panel from Enterprise’s wing to perform analysis of the material and attached it to the test structure, then shot a foam block at it. While the panel was not broken as a result of the test, the impact was enough to permanently deform a seal. As the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panel on Columbia was 2.5 times weaker, this suggested that the RCC leading edge would have been shattered. Additional tests on the fiberglass were canceled in order not to risk damaging the test apparatus, and a panel from Discovery was tested to determine the effects of the foam on a similarly-aged RCC leading edge. On July 7, 2003, a foam impact test created a hole 41 cm by 42.5 cm (16.1 inches by 16.7 inches) in the protective RCC panel. The tests clearly demonstrated that a foam impact of the type Columbia sustained could seriously breach the protective RCC panels on the wing leading edge.

The board determined that the probable cause of the accident was that the foam impact caused a breach of a reinforced carbon-carbon panel along the leading edge of Columbia’s left wing, allowing hot gases generated during re-entry to enter the wing and cause structural collapse. This caused Columbia to spin out of control, breaking up with the loss of the entire crew.

Museum exhibit

Enterprise was stored at the Smithsonian’s hangar at Washington Dulles International Airport before it was restored and moved to the newly built Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum‘s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles International Airport, where it has been the centerpiece of the space collection. On April 12, 2011, NASA announced that Space Shuttle Discovery, the most traveled orbiter in the fleet, will be added to the collection once the Shuttle fleet is retired. When that happens, Enterprise will be moved to the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum in New York City, to a newly constructed hangar adjacent to the museum. In preparation for the anticipated relocation, engineers evaluated the vehicle in early 2010 and determined that it was safe to fly on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft once again.

President Herman Van Rompuy meeting with Bono, 09 Oct 2012 (Brussels)
International development policy
Image by President of the European Council
Today, Bono and President Van Rompuy had an interesting discussion about the EU development policies. They discussed the ongoing negotiations on the future European budget and transparency of extractive industries. They are both strongly committed to a Europe of values and people.

Wanted: fresh ideas for combating African poverty
International development policy
Image by Africa Renewal
The MDGs have been more successful that other UN development initiatives in mobilizing donor support. Photograph: UN Photo / P Mugabane

Amidst global crisis, a need to go beyond the MDGs.
The Millennium Development Goals are likely to remain important for the long-term task of eradicating poverty beyond 2015. But development policy is being challenged by a host of new and old issues brought into focus by the quadruple crises of the past three years: the food, climate, energy and financial crises. The favourable global economic and political conditions that existed when the MDGs were adopted in 2000 do not exist anymore. The crises and their aftermaths therefore require us to "think out of the box," to ask different questions and seek new ways of social and political mobilization to tackle the structural problems that perpetuate global inequalities.

Certainly the MDGs have marked a step forward. They have received unprecedented political commitment and forged a strong consensus on fighting poverty. They have helped expand the international debate over sustainable pro-poor development and over how to mobilize donor support for domestic efforts, especially in health, education and other social services.

When we look back at the range of UN conferences and what came out of them, the MDGs appear to have been more successful than most other attempts at setting international targets for development issues. They also have helped some civil society groups to hold governments in developing countries accountable for their decisions.

Wanted: fresh ideas for combating African poverty