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Sharing Risk in a World of Dangers and Opportunities

Some cool International development policy images:

Sharing Risk in a World of Dangers and Opportunities
International development policy
Image by CSIS: Center for Strategic & International Studies
The changing nature of international development has created a growing interest in the use of development finance instruments. As the availability of soft grant money decreases and acceptance of private-sector-led growth increases, development policy is shifting away from official development assistance to focus more on investment and trade. In this context, the U.S. government must use its development finance instruments more effectively. For more go to csis.org/event/sharing-risk-world-dangers-and-opportuniti…

Sharing Risk in a World of Dangers and Opportunities
International development policy
Image by CSIS: Center for Strategic & International Studies
The changing nature of international development has created a growing interest in the use of development finance instruments. As the availability of soft grant money decreases and acceptance of private-sector-led growth increases, development policy is shifting away from official development assistance to focus more on investment and trade. In this context, the U.S. government must use its development finance instruments more effectively. For more go to csis.org/event/sharing-risk-world-dangers-and-opportuniti…

Cool International Development Policy images

Some cool International development policy images:

Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center: SR-71 Blackbird and Space Shuttle Enterprise in the distance
International development policy
Image by Chris Devers
See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird:

No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated globally in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71, the world’s fastest jet-propelled aircraft. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War.

This Blackbird accrued about 2,800 hours of flight time during 24 years of active service with the U.S. Air Force. On its last flight, March 6, 1990, Lt. Col. Ed Yielding and Lt. Col. Joseph Vida set a speed record by flying from Los Angeles to Washington, D.C., in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging 3,418 kilometers (2,124 miles) per hour. At the flight’s conclusion, they landed at Washington-Dulles International Airport and turned the airplane over to the Smithsonian.

Transferred from the United States Air Force.

Manufacturer:
Lockheed Aircraft Corporation

Designer:
Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson

Date:
1964

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 55ft 7in. x 107ft 5in., 169998.5lb. (5.638m x 16.942m x 32.741m, 77110.8kg)
Other: 18ft 5 15/16in. x 107ft 5in. x 55ft 7in. (5.638m x 32.741m x 16.942m)

Materials:
Titanium

Physical Description:
Twin-engine, two-seat, supersonic strategic reconnaissance aircraft; airframe constructed largley of titanium and its alloys; vertical tail fins are constructed of a composite (laminated plastic-type material) to reduce radar cross-section; Pratt and Whitney J58 (JT11D-20B) turbojet engines feature large inlet shock cones.

Long Description:
No reconnaissance aircraft in history has operated in more hostile airspace or with such complete impunity than the SR-71 Blackbird. It is the fastest aircraft propelled by air-breathing engines. The Blackbird’s performance and operational achievements placed it at the pinnacle of aviation technology developments during the Cold War. The airplane was conceived when tensions with communist Eastern Europe reached levels approaching a full-blown crisis in the mid-1950s. U.S. military commanders desperately needed accurate assessments of Soviet worldwide military deployments, particularly near the Iron Curtain. Lockheed Aircraft Corporation’s subsonic U-2 (see NASM collection) reconnaissance aircraft was an able platform but the U. S. Air Force recognized that this relatively slow aircraft was already vulnerable to Soviet interceptors. They also understood that the rapid development of surface-to-air missile systems could put U-2 pilots at grave risk. The danger proved reality when a U-2 was shot down by a surface to air missile over the Soviet Union in 1960.

Lockheed’s first proposal for a new high speed, high altitude, reconnaissance aircraft, to be capable of avoiding interceptors and missiles, centered on a design propelled by liquid hydrogen. This proved to be impracticable because of considerable fuel consumption. Lockheed then reconfigured the design for conventional fuels. This was feasible and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), already flying the Lockheed U-2, issued a production contract for an aircraft designated the A-12. Lockheed’s clandestine ‘Skunk Works’ division (headed by the gifted design engineer Clarence L. "Kelly" Johnson) designed the A-12 to cruise at Mach 3.2 and fly well above 18,288 m (60,000 feet). To meet these challenging requirements, Lockheed engineers overcame many daunting technical challenges. Flying more than three times the speed of sound generates 316° C (600° F) temperatures on external aircraft surfaces, which are enough to melt conventional aluminum airframes. The design team chose to make the jet’s external skin of titanium alloy to which shielded the internal aluminum airframe. Two conventional, but very powerful, afterburning turbine engines propelled this remarkable aircraft. These power plants had to operate across a huge speed envelope in flight, from a takeoff speed of 334 kph (207 mph) to more than 3,540 kph (2,200 mph). To prevent supersonic shock waves from moving inside the engine intake causing flameouts, Johnson’s team had to design a complex air intake and bypass system for the engines.

Skunk Works engineers also optimized the A-12 cross-section design to exhibit a low radar profile. Lockheed hoped to achieve this by carefully shaping the airframe to reflect as little transmitted radar energy (radio waves) as possible, and by application of special paint designed to absorb, rather than reflect, those waves. This treatment became one of the first applications of stealth technology, but it never completely met the design goals.

Test pilot Lou Schalk flew the single-seat A-12 on April 24, 1962, after he became airborne accidentally during high-speed taxi trials. The airplane showed great promise but it needed considerable technical refinement before the CIA could fly the first operational sortie on May 31, 1967 – a surveillance flight over North Vietnam. A-12s, flown by CIA pilots, operated as part of the Air Force’s 1129th Special Activities Squadron under the "Oxcart" program. While Lockheed continued to refine the A-12, the U. S. Air Force ordered an interceptor version of the aircraft designated the YF-12A. The Skunk Works, however, proposed a "specific mission" version configured to conduct post-nuclear strike reconnaissance. This system evolved into the USAF’s familiar SR-71.

Lockheed built fifteen A-12s, including a special two-seat trainer version. Two A-12s were modified to carry a special reconnaissance drone, designated D-21. The modified A-12s were redesignated M-21s. These were designed to take off with the D-21 drone, powered by a Marquart ramjet engine mounted on a pylon between the rudders. The M-21 then hauled the drone aloft and launched it at speeds high enough to ignite the drone’s ramjet motor. Lockheed also built three YF-12As but this type never went into production. Two of the YF-12As crashed during testing. Only one survives and is on display at the USAF Museum in Dayton, Ohio. The aft section of one of the "written off" YF-12As which was later used along with an SR-71A static test airframe to manufacture the sole SR-71C trainer. One SR-71 was lent to NASA and designated YF-12C. Including the SR-71C and two SR-71B pilot trainers, Lockheed constructed thirty-two Blackbirds. The first SR-71 flew on December 22, 1964. Because of extreme operational costs, military strategists decided that the more capable USAF SR-71s should replace the CIA’s A-12s. These were retired in 1968 after only one year of operational missions, mostly over southeast Asia. The Air Force’s 1st Strategic Reconnaissance Squadron (part of the 9th Strategic Reconnaissance Wing) took over the missions, flying the SR-71 beginning in the spring of 1968.

After the Air Force began to operate the SR-71, it acquired the official name Blackbird– for the special black paint that covered the airplane. This paint was formulated to absorb radar signals, to radiate some of the tremendous airframe heat generated by air friction, and to camouflage the aircraft against the dark sky at high altitudes.

Experience gained from the A-12 program convinced the Air Force that flying the SR-71 safely required two crew members, a pilot and a Reconnaissance Systems Officer (RSO). The RSO operated with the wide array of monitoring and defensive systems installed on the airplane. This equipment included a sophisticated Electronic Counter Measures (ECM) system that could jam most acquisition and targeting radar. In addition to an array of advanced, high-resolution cameras, the aircraft could also carry equipment designed to record the strength, frequency, and wavelength of signals emitted by communications and sensor devices such as radar. The SR-71 was designed to fly deep into hostile territory, avoiding interception with its tremendous speed and high altitude. It could operate safely at a maximum speed of Mach 3.3 at an altitude more than sixteen miles, or 25,908 m (85,000 ft), above the earth. The crew had to wear pressure suits similar to those worn by astronauts. These suits were required to protect the crew in the event of sudden cabin pressure loss while at operating altitudes.

To climb and cruise at supersonic speeds, the Blackbird’s Pratt & Whitney J-58 engines were designed to operate continuously in afterburner. While this would appear to dictate high fuel flows, the Blackbird actually achieved its best "gas mileage," in terms of air nautical miles per pound of fuel burned, during the Mach 3+ cruise. A typical Blackbird reconnaissance flight might require several aerial refueling operations from an airborne tanker. Each time the SR-71 refueled, the crew had to descend to the tanker’s altitude, usually about 6,000 m to 9,000 m (20,000 to 30,000 ft), and slow the airplane to subsonic speeds. As velocity decreased, so did frictional heat. This cooling effect caused the aircraft’s skin panels to shrink considerably, and those covering the fuel tanks contracted so much that fuel leaked, forming a distinctive vapor trail as the tanker topped off the Blackbird. As soon as the tanks were filled, the jet’s crew disconnected from the tanker, relit the afterburners, and again climbed to high altitude.

Air Force pilots flew the SR-71 from Kadena AB, Japan, throughout its operational career but other bases hosted Blackbird operations, too. The 9th SRW occasionally deployed from Beale AFB, California, to other locations to carryout operational missions. Cuban missions were flown directly from Beale. The SR-71 did not begin to operate in Europe until 1974, and then only temporarily. In 1982, when the U.S. Air Force based two aircraft at Royal Air Force Base Mildenhall to fly monitoring mission in Eastern Europe.

When the SR-71 became operational, orbiting reconnaissance satellites had already replaced manned aircraft to gather intelligence from sites deep within Soviet territory. Satellites could not cover every geopolitical hotspot so the Blackbird remained a vital tool for global intelligence gathering. On many occasions, pilots and RSOs flying the SR-71 provided information that proved vital in formulating successful U. S. foreign policy. Blackbird crews provided important intelligence about the 1973 Yom Kippur War, the Israeli invasion of Lebanon and its aftermath, and pre- and post-strike imagery of the 1986 raid conducted by American air forces on Libya. In 1987, Kadena-based SR-71 crews flew a number of missions over the Persian Gulf, revealing Iranian Silkworm missile batteries that threatened commercial shipping and American escort vessels.

As the performance of space-based surveillance systems grew, along with the effectiveness of ground-based air defense networks, the Air Force started to lose enthusiasm for the expensive program and the 9th SRW ceased SR-71 operations in January 1990. Despite protests by military leaders, Congress revived the program in 1995. Continued wrangling over operating budgets, however, soon led to final termination. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration retained two SR-71As and the one SR-71B for high-speed research projects and flew these airplanes until 1999.

On March 6, 1990, the service career of one Lockheed SR-71A Blackbird ended with a record-setting flight. This special airplane bore Air Force serial number 64-17972. Lt. Col. Ed Yeilding and his RSO, Lieutenant Colonel Joseph Vida, flew this aircraft from Los Angeles to Washington D.C. in 1 hour, 4 minutes, and 20 seconds, averaging a speed of 3,418 kph (2,124 mph). At the conclusion of the flight, ‘972 landed at Dulles International Airport and taxied into the custody of the Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum. At that time, Lt. Col. Vida had logged 1,392.7 hours of flight time in Blackbirds, more than that of any other crewman.

This particular SR-71 was also flown by Tom Alison, a former National Air and Space Museum’s Chief of Collections Management. Flying with Detachment 1 at Kadena Air Force Base, Okinawa, Alison logged more than a dozen ‘972 operational sorties. The aircraft spent twenty-four years in active Air Force service and accrued a total of 2,801.1 hours of flight time.

Wingspan: 55’7"
Length: 107’5"
Height: 18’6"
Weight: 170,000 Lbs

Reference and Further Reading:

Crickmore, Paul F. Lockheed SR-71: The Secret Missions Exposed. Oxford: Osprey Publishing, 1996.

Francillon, Rene J. Lockheed Aircraft Since 1913. Annapolis, Md.: Naval Institute Press, 1987.

Johnson, Clarence L. Kelly: More Than My Share of It All. Washington D.C.: Smithsonian Institution Press, 1985.

Miller, Jay. Lockheed Martin’s Skunk Works. Leicester, U.K.: Midland Counties Publishing Ltd., 1995.

Lockheed SR-71 Blackbird curatorial file, Aeronautics Division, National Air and Space Museum.

DAD, 11-11-01

• • • • •

See more photos of this, and the Wikipedia article.

Details, quoting from Smithsonian National Air and Space Museum | Space Shuttle Enterprise:

Manufacturer:
Rockwell International Corporation

Country of Origin:
United States of America

Dimensions:
Overall: 57 ft. tall x 122 ft. long x 78 ft. wing span, 150,000 lb.
(1737.36 x 3718.57 x 2377.44cm, 68039.6kg)

Materials:
Aluminum airframe and body with some fiberglass features; payload bay doors are graphite epoxy composite; thermal tiles are simulated (polyurethane foam) except for test samples of actual tiles and thermal blankets.

The first Space Shuttle orbiter, "Enterprise," is a full-scale test vehicle used for flights in the atmosphere and tests on the ground; it is not equipped for spaceflight. Although the airframe and flight control elements are like those of the Shuttles flown in space, this vehicle has no propulsion system and only simulated thermal tiles because these features were not needed for atmospheric and ground tests. "Enterprise" was rolled out at Rockwell International’s assembly facility in Palmdale, California, in 1976. In 1977, it entered service for a nine-month-long approach-and-landing test flight program. Thereafter it was used for vibration tests and fit checks at NASA centers, and it also appeared in the 1983 Paris Air Show and the 1984 World’s Fair in New Orleans. In 1985, NASA transferred "Enterprise" to the Smithsonian Institution’s National Air and Space Museum.

Transferred from National Aeronautics and Space Administration

• • •

Quoting from Wikipedia | Space Shuttle Enterprise:

The Space Shuttle Enterprise (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-101) was the first Space Shuttle orbiter. It was built for NASA as part of the Space Shuttle program to perform test flights in the atmosphere. It was constructed without engines or a functional heat shield, and was therefore not capable of spaceflight.

Originally, Enterprise had been intended to be refitted for orbital flight, which would have made it the second space shuttle to fly after Columbia. However, during the construction of Columbia, details of the final design changed, particularly with regard to the weight of the fuselage and wings. Refitting Enterprise for spaceflight would have involved dismantling the orbiter and returning the sections to subcontractors across the country. As this was an expensive proposition, it was determined to be less costly to build Challenger around a body frame (STA-099) that had been created as a test article. Similarly, Enterprise was considered for refit to replace Challenger after the latter was destroyed, but Endeavour was built from structural spares instead.

Service

Construction began on the first orbiter on June 4, 1974. Designated OV-101, it was originally planned to be named Constitution and unveiled on Constitution Day, September 17, 1976. A write-in campaign by Trekkies to President Gerald Ford asked that the orbiter be named after the Starship Enterprise, featured on the television show Star Trek. Although Ford did not mention the campaign, the president—who during World War II had served on the aircraft carrier USS Monterey (CVL-26) that served with USS Enterprise (CV-6)—said that he was "partial to the name" and overrode NASA officials.

The design of OV-101 was not the same as that planned for OV-102, the first flight model; the tail was constructed differently, and it did not have the interfaces to mount OMS pods. A large number of subsystems—ranging from main engines to radar equipment—were not installed on this vehicle, but the capacity to add them in the future was retained. Instead of a thermal protection system, its surface was primarily fiberglass.

In mid-1976, the orbiter was used for ground vibration tests, allowing engineers to compare data from an actual flight vehicle with theoretical models.

On September 17, 1976, Enterprise was rolled out of Rockwell’s plant at Palmdale, California. In recognition of its fictional namesake, Star Trek creator Gene Roddenberry and most of the principal cast of the original series of Star Trek were on hand at the dedication ceremony.

Approach and landing tests (ALT)

Main article: Approach and Landing Tests

On January 31, 1977, it was taken by road to Dryden Flight Research Center at Edwards Air Force Base, to begin operational testing.

While at NASA Dryden, Enterprise was used by NASA for a variety of ground and flight tests intended to validate aspects of the shuttle program. The initial nine-month testing period was referred to by the acronym ALT, for "Approach and Landing Test". These tests included a maiden "flight" on February 18, 1977 atop a Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA) to measure structural loads and ground handling and braking characteristics of the mated system. Ground tests of all orbiter subsystems were carried out to verify functionality prior to atmospheric flight.

The mated Enterprise/SCA combination was then subjected to five test flights with Enterprise unmanned and unactivated. The purpose of these test flights was to measure the flight characteristics of the mated combination. These tests were followed with three test flights with Enterprise manned to test the shuttle flight control systems.

Enterprise underwent five free flights where the craft separated from the SCA and was landed under astronaut control. These tests verified the flight characteristics of the orbiter design and were carried out under several aerodynamic and weight configurations. On the fifth and final glider flight, pilot-induced oscillation problems were revealed, which had to be addressed before the first orbital launch occurred.

On August 12, 1977, the space shuttle Enterprise flew on its own for the first time.

Preparation for STS-1

Following the ALT program, Enterprise was ferried among several NASA facilities to configure the craft for vibration testing. In June 1979, it was mated with an external tank and solid rocket boosters (known as a boilerplate configuration) and tested in a launch configuration at Kennedy Space Center Launch Pad 39A.

Retirement

With the completion of critical testing, Enterprise was partially disassembled to allow certain components to be reused in other shuttles, then underwent an international tour visiting France, Germany, Italy, the United Kingdom, Canada, and the U.S. states of California, Alabama, and Louisiana (during the 1984 Louisiana World Exposition). It was also used to fit-check the never-used shuttle launch pad at Vandenberg AFB, California. Finally, on November 18, 1985, Enterprise was ferried to Washington, D.C., where it became property of the Smithsonian Institution.

Post-Challenger

After the Challenger disaster, NASA considered using Enterprise as a replacement. However refitting the shuttle with all of the necessary equipment needed for it to be used in space was considered, but instead it was decided to use spares constructed at the same time as Discovery and Atlantis to build Endeavour.

Post-Columbia

In 2003, after the breakup of Columbia during re-entry, the Columbia Accident Investigation Board conducted tests at Southwest Research Institute, which used an air gun to shoot foam blocks of similar size, mass and speed to that which struck Columbia at a test structure which mechanically replicated the orbiter wing leading edge. They removed a fiberglass panel from Enterprise’s wing to perform analysis of the material and attached it to the test structure, then shot a foam block at it. While the panel was not broken as a result of the test, the impact was enough to permanently deform a seal. As the reinforced carbon-carbon (RCC) panel on Columbia was 2.5 times weaker, this suggested that the RCC leading edge would have been shattered. Additional tests on the fiberglass were canceled in order not to risk damaging the test apparatus, and a panel from Discovery was tested to determine the effects of the foam on a similarly-aged RCC leading edge. On July 7, 2003, a foam impact test created a hole 41 cm by 42.5 cm (16.1 inches by 16.7 inches) in the protective RCC panel. The tests clearly demonstrated that a foam impact of the type Columbia sustained could seriously breach the protective RCC panels on the wing leading edge.

The board determined that the probable cause of the accident was that the foam impact caused a breach of a reinforced carbon-carbon panel along the leading edge of Columbia’s left wing, allowing hot gases generated during re-entry to enter the wing and cause structural collapse. This caused Columbia to spin out of control, breaking up with the loss of the entire crew.

Museum exhibit

Enterprise was stored at the Smithsonian’s hangar at Washington Dulles International Airport before it was restored and moved to the newly built Smithsonian’s National Air and Space Museum‘s Steven F. Udvar-Hazy Center at Dulles International Airport, where it has been the centerpiece of the space collection. On April 12, 2011, NASA announced that Space Shuttle Discovery, the most traveled orbiter in the fleet, will be added to the collection once the Shuttle fleet is retired. When that happens, Enterprise will be moved to the Intrepid Sea-Air-Space Museum in New York City, to a newly constructed hangar adjacent to the museum. In preparation for the anticipated relocation, engineers evaluated the vehicle in early 2010 and determined that it was safe to fly on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft once again.

President Herman Van Rompuy meeting with Bono, 09 Oct 2012 (Brussels)
International development policy
Image by President of the European Council
Today, Bono and President Van Rompuy had an interesting discussion about the EU development policies. They discussed the ongoing negotiations on the future European budget and transparency of extractive industries. They are both strongly committed to a Europe of values and people.

Wanted: fresh ideas for combating African poverty
International development policy
Image by Africa Renewal
The MDGs have been more successful that other UN development initiatives in mobilizing donor support. Photograph: UN Photo / P Mugabane

Amidst global crisis, a need to go beyond the MDGs.
The Millennium Development Goals are likely to remain important for the long-term task of eradicating poverty beyond 2015. But development policy is being challenged by a host of new and old issues brought into focus by the quadruple crises of the past three years: the food, climate, energy and financial crises. The favourable global economic and political conditions that existed when the MDGs were adopted in 2000 do not exist anymore. The crises and their aftermaths therefore require us to "think out of the box," to ask different questions and seek new ways of social and political mobilization to tackle the structural problems that perpetuate global inequalities.

Certainly the MDGs have marked a step forward. They have received unprecedented political commitment and forged a strong consensus on fighting poverty. They have helped expand the international debate over sustainable pro-poor development and over how to mobilize donor support for domestic efforts, especially in health, education and other social services.

When we look back at the range of UN conferences and what came out of them, the MDGs appear to have been more successful than most other attempts at setting international targets for development issues. They also have helped some civil society groups to hold governments in developing countries accountable for their decisions.

Wanted: fresh ideas for combating African poverty

During the 1890s, what international developments led some American opinion leaders to believe that…?

Question by Arthur Q: During the 1890s, what international developments led some American opinion leaders to believe that…?
the US must become more active in world affairs? What domestic problems in the 1890s made foreign expansion seem like a safety valve? Describe in a few sentences each 3 religious, historical, economic, or scientific arguments voiced in favor of expansion.

Best answer:

Answer by Joseph
The 1890s in America were desperate times. Economic depression caused bank and business failures and forced millions of men and women from their jobs.

General:
In the years leading up to the Spanish American War, the United States experienced a growth in ethnocentrism, a belief in manifest destiny and Anglo-Saxonism. It was this combination of views that provided the moral impetus allowing for the U.S. public to support the efforts to make the country into an imperial power. The ongoing debate over these views shaped American policy for years.

The Discussion:

Throughout the 19th century, Americans discussed and debated issues connected to expansion. Westward acquisitions began with the Louisiana Purchase and continued through the mid-century period with the land gained through the war with Mexico. By the Civil War, the territory that today composes the “lower 48” was owned by the United States, and our northern and southern borders were stabilized through treaty negotiations with Canada and Mexico.

From the early years of the century until the Civil War, policy debates centered on extending our North American borders. Each episode of expansion created an intellectual friction between those that supported territorial growth and those in opposition. Debate varied in their particulars, however. The purchase of the Louisiana Territory, for instance, raised important constitutional issues concerning the legality of land purchase. In the ensuing years, geographic growth would be examined in the context of moral, economic and political issues. Regardless of the historical event, an underlying belief in manifest destiny, our nation’s fate and duty to settle our North American lands coast to coast, underscored each territorial acquisition. It seems certain most Americans believed in a special manifest destiny for the nation, and this philosophical foundation enabled the United States to spread westward with confidence and moral assuredness.

http://www.spanamwar.com/imperialism.htm
http://www.smplanet.com/imperialism/toc.html
http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_1741500823_22/United_States_History.html

Background for US expansion during the “Age of Imperialism”

Post Spanish-American War U.S. political cartoon from 1898: “Ten Thousand Miles From Tip to Tip” meaning the extension of U.S. domination (symbolized by a bald eagle) from ‘Puerto Rico’ to the Philippines. The cartoon contrasts this with a map of the smaller United States in 1798.A variety of factors coincided during this period to bring about an accelerated pace of U.S. expansion:

Wars such as the Spanish-American War that led to liberation and acquisition of former colonies of foreign states
The industry and agriculture of the United States had grown beyond its need for consumption. Powerful business and political figures such as James G. Blaine believed that foreign markets were essential to further economic growth, promoting a more aggressive foreign policy.
The prevalence of racism, notably Ernst Haeckel’s “biogenic law,” John Fiske’s conception of Anglo-Saxon racial superiority, and Josiah Strong’s call to “civilize and Christianize” – all manifestations of a growing Social Darwinism and racism in some schools of American political thought.[citation needed]
The development of Frederick Jackson Turner’s “Frontier Thesis,” which stated that the American frontier was the wellspring of its creativity and virility as a civilization. As the Western United States was gradually becoming less of a frontier and more of a part of America, many believed that overseas expansion was vital to maintaining the American spirit.
The publication of Alfred T. Mahan’s The Influence of Sea Power upon History in 1890, which advocated three factors crucial to The United States’ ascension to the position of “world power”: the construction of a canal in South America (later influencing the decision for the construction of the Panama Canal), expansion of the U.S. naval power, and the establishment of a trade/military post in the Pacific, so as to stimulate trade with China. This publication had a strong influence on the idea that a strong navy stimulated trade, and influenced policy makers such as Theodore Roosevelt and other proponents of a large navy…..Vikpedia

What do you think? Answer below!

Cool International Development Policy images

Some cool International development policy images:

Sharing Risk in a World of Dangers and Opportunities
International development policy
Image by CSIS: Center for Strategic & International Studies
The changing nature of international development has created a growing interest in the use of development finance instruments. As the availability of soft grant money decreases and acceptance of private-sector-led growth increases, development policy is shifting away from official development assistance to focus more on investment and trade. In this context, the U.S. government must use its development finance instruments more effectively. For more go to csis.org/event/sharing-risk-world-dangers-and-opportuniti…

Sharing Risk in a World of Dangers and Opportunities
International development policy
Image by CSIS: Center for Strategic & International Studies
The changing nature of international development has created a growing interest in the use of development finance instruments. As the availability of soft grant money decreases and acceptance of private-sector-led growth increases, development policy is shifting away from official development assistance to focus more on investment and trade. In this context, the U.S. government must use its development finance instruments more effectively. For more go to csis.org/event/sharing-risk-world-dangers-and-opportuniti…

Cloud Services Clarification Act Decisively Approved by Idaho Legislators

Cloud Services Clarification Act Decisively Approved by Idaho Legislators











BOISE, Idaho (PRWEB) April 10, 2013

House Bill 243, the Cloud Services Clarification Act, was decisively approved by Idaho legislators and was signed into law by Governor Otter yesterday. A critical piece of legislation for Idaho’s technology community, the approval of House Bill 243 has far reaching implications for Idaho’s tech industry.

Idaho government leaders asserted that the passage of House Bill 243 would support the growth of existing technology companies and build Idaho’s reputation as a business friendly state. “Idaho policymakers understand the importance of fostering our state’s tech industry. The passage of House Bill 243 sends a strong message to the national and international business communities that Idaho is open for business,” said Governor C.L. “Butch” Otter.

House Bill 243 clarifies that Idaho cloud based services are not taxable transactions. This legislation was drafted by members of the Idaho Technology Council (ITC) in response to last October’s ruling by the Idaho Tax Commission, which stated that cloud based services were subject to taxation. The taxation of cloud services has been an issue many states are grappling with and Idaho’s decision about taxing cloud services attracted national attention from publications like the Wall Street Journal.

As services are not taxable in Idaho, ITC members asserted that exempting cloud based services was a ruling consistent with existing Idaho Tax Code. Members of the Idaho Technology Council were also concerned that taxing cloud based services would severely harm the growth of Idaho’s budding technology sector. Because the Idaho Tax Commission audits more Idaho companies compared to companies selling cloud based services in Idaho, it placed Idaho tech companies at an inherent disadvantage. ITC members testified to legislators that the tax on cloud based services would harm Idaho’s economy by making it difficult to start new Idaho tech companies and by encouraging existing tech companies to relocate to other states.

“If you do things that increase the tax rate and difficulty of doing business for a tech business, they can move employees somewhere else, hire somewhere else, they can grow somewhere else and not grow here in the state of Idaho,” said Michael Boren, COO of Clearwater Analytics, which provides investment portfolio reporting and analytics.

Throughout the legislative process, members of the ITC asserted that the cost of losing cloud computing businesses in Idaho would be greater than the revenue that could be gained from such a policy. “Idaho tech companies employ numerous people in high-wage positions and the economic impact cannot be understated. Idaho policymakers made a smart decision to consistently apply state tax policy for services provided by Cloud Computing businesses,” said Rich Stuppy, Vice President of product strategy at Kount, which provides protection services from online fraud.

Representative Mike Moyle, Senator Jim Rice, and Senator Russ Fulcher sponsored House Bill 243 as it passed through the House and Senate. Widespread support was generated from the private sector and key stakeholders, including the Boise Metro Chamber of Commerce and the Idaho Commerce. Throughout the legislative process, House Bill 243 was strongly supported by Idaho lawmakers. It passed the House and Senate Taxation Committees unanimously, passed the House by a 65-2 vote, and passed the Idaho Senate unanimously with a 34 – 0 vote.

“The legislature acted responsively and responsibly. They worked hard to understand the complexity of the issue, with both the tax implications and the technology in question,” says Matt Rissell, CEO of Tsheets. “In the end, it’s a win-win all the way around. It will ultimately open the doors to other businesses making Idaho their home.”

###

ABOUT THE IDAHO TECHNOLOGY COUNCIL (http://www.idahotechcouncil.org) The Idaho Technology Council’s mission is to foster the development of technology companies in Idaho, primarily in the areas of information technology, agriscience, and energy. The ITC provides a valuable forum for industry, research, educators, investors and government throughout the state. The ITC represents all aspects of technology – from research to commercialization to capitalization and talent recruitment. The integration of high technology into all aspects of the economy means that the ITC will remain entirely member-driven to deliver objective expertise broadly applicable to Idaho policy-makers. Members gain access to industry-shaping discussions and information geared to enacting results. ITC conducts regular events, including peer-to-peer forums, CEO roundtables, and opportunities to meet with civic leaders and nationally-recognized analysts. In addition, members participate in the ITC’s planning process on a multi-year road map to drive measurable results in areas such as attracting talent, increasing available funding from government and private investors, and developing and protecting intellectual property.























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ITIF Report: Feeding the Planet in a Warming World

ITIF Report: Feeding the Planet in a Warming World












Washington, DC (PRWEB) April 08, 2013

The ever widening effect of climate change on the planet requires the development of comprehensive adaptation strategies that can transform our socio-economic systems to meet this reality. Nowhere is this truer than in agriculture. The world requires game-changing innovation and next generation technologies to address the impacts of climate change, and our exploding population, on global food production.

Feeding the Planet in a Warming World, a new report by The Information Technology and Innovation Foundation (ITIF) and the London School of Economics (LSE), argues that nations must focus on advancing the research and development of plant and animal genetics and new agricultural practices to address this challenge. The authors recommend policy reforms designed to dramatically increase government investment in agricultural research, development and deployment, while also transforming the regulatory framework for and increasing the use of genetically modified (GM) foods.

To view the full report, visit http://www2.itif.org/2013-feeding-planet-warming-world.pdf.

“Climate change is a fact, and we need to focus public policy on adaptation strategies that can mitigate the impacts on systems such as agriculture,” says Matthew Stepp, Senior Policy Analyst with ITIF.

“Our international agricultural innovation infrastructure is grossly underfunded and too focused on near-term challenges and current technologies,” adds Val Giddings, Senior Fellow with ITIF. “The system as it is today will not deliver the agricultural technologies necessary to address the severe climate impacts we will face.”

The report calls for a tripling of global investment in agricultural research and advocates for increased use of genetic research to develop new crop varieties with improved yields and resilience. In addition, governments must strengthen international institutions to serve as renewed hubs for agricultural innovation and dissemination.

“The world requires more productive crops that have built-in means for withstanding extreme heat, cold, rain and drought, as well as better mechanisms to quickly disseminate these technologies across the globe,” notes Mark Caine, Research Fellow with the London School of Economics. “Our policy recommendations will assist in creating the robust, well-funded global innovation infrastructure that is central to achieving this goal.”

The authors also argue the global regulatory framework for agriculture, particularly for genetically modified foods, must be reformed. Many countries ban all uses of GM foods and many more, such as the United States, require unjustified testing and oversight of GM products which increases production costs and delays market access. The authors call for the creation of regulatory standards that focus on the safety and nutritional value of the product—not how it was produced.

“GM foods have been a central factor in increasing food production and decreasing costs over the last three decades, and are as safe as any other type of food,” Giddings says. “By transforming the regulatory framework to meet this reality we can more rapidly develop new agricultural advances and broaden their use globally.”























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04082013_PopulationDynamics

Some cool International development policy images:

04082013_PopulationDynamics
International development policy
Image by Wilson Center – ECSP
The African Institute for Development Policy (AFIDEP) recently conducted a study in collaboration with Population Action International to analyze the challenges and opportunities for incorporating population considerations into climate change and development interventions in sub-Saharan Africa. The results, presented at the Wilson Center, highlight policy and program implications in Kenya and Malawi and will help guide responses to climate change that include population dynamics and work towards sustainable development.

Giles Norman, Director of the Canadian International Centre for the Arctic Region
International development policy
Image by Polish Institute of International Affairs

Conference: A MORE ACCESSIBLE ARCTIC: MYTHS, FACTS AND ISSUES AHEAD

On 1 March 2011 Embassy of Embassy of Canada to Poland and the Polish Institute of International Affairs organized a conference devoted to Arctic region.
“This half-day conference brought together Polish and Canadian Arctic experts and decision
makers to support and consider the emerging discussion in Poland on this important region.

Poland has been a distinguished member of the Arctic research community and a prominent
Observer State of the Arctic Council since its inception. While to Canadians the Arctic is home,
and to Polish researchers it is a challenging but familiar workplace, to much of the international
community and indeed Polish society it remains relatively unknown or misunderstood. Far from
being a ‘wild west’ frontier as it is sometimes portrayed, the Arctic is a well-governed and
thriving homeland to numerous indigenous communities with enormous development potential.

Canada’s vision for the Arctic is that of a stable region with clearly defined boundaries, dynamic
economic growth and trade, vibrant Northern communities, and healthy and productive
ecosystems. The Arctic Council is for Canada the well-established and principal forum for
international cooperation in these areas. Poland’s vision of the Arctic is similar, as an observer
in the Arctic Council, which convenes and supports sustained dialogue and cooperation.

Canada, like Poland, has made a strong commitment to Arctic science—the foundation for sound
policy- and decision-making on the environment. Canada was the single largest financial
contributor to International Polar Year research activities and has announced the construction
of a state of the art international High Arctic research facility in Cambridge Bay, and Poland
maintains a world-class scientific research base in Spitsbergen. New opportunities and
challenges are emerging across the Arctic, in part as a result of climate change and the pursuit
of resources. While this may well support social and economic development, it may also bring
new environmental threats, search and rescue incidents, civil emergencies and, potentially
even illegal activity*”.

*Quote from conference’s agenda

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