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House Session 2010-04-14 (10:03:38-10:45:26)

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Coral’network’ can protect Asia-Pac fish stocks

Coral’network’ can protect Asia-Pac fish stocks
( ARC Centre of Excellence in Coral Reef Studies ) Research by Dr. Johnathan Kool of the ARC Centre of Excellence for Coral Reef Studies and James Cook University, and his colleagues, has established that the richest marine region on Earth — the Coral Triangle between Indonesia, Malaysia and the Philippines — depends vitally for its diversity and resilience on coral and fish larvae swept in …
Read more on EurekAlert!

Grand Valley State University hosting two job fairs
Grand Valley State University’s Career Services is hosting two job fairs, one in partnership with Michigan’s Department of Human Services. The Feb. 22-24 recruitment fair on the Pew Grand Rapids Campus will assist the state’s announcement of hiring more than 500…
Read more on The Muskegon Chronicle

Solving the Mystery of the Bizarre Deformed Frogs
For the last two decades, strange things have been happening to frogs. Some frog populations have high rates of limb deformities, while others have high incidences of what is known as “intersex” — traits associated with both males and females, such as male frogs whose testes contain eggs. read more
Read more on CommonDreams.org

Gitanjali’s Experience at The Monterey Institute of International Studies

After graduating from Calcutta University and working at Google, Gitanjali decided that what she really wanted was a career in International Development. Last year, she moved to California, where she is now pursuing her Master’s in International Policy Studies at the Monterey Institute of International Studies. In this interview, she talks about that transition.
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GREEN MARKETING ? OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

GREEN MARKETING – OPPORTUNITIES & CHALLENGES

 

BY

Miss. P. PIRAKATHEESWARI, Lecturer in Commerce,

Sri Sarada College for Women (Autonomous), Salem – 16.

“Progress is possible, No one can stop it, but obstacle is there, we have to face it.”

 

– Amartya Sen

Introduction

Yes, green marketing is a golden goose. As per Mr. J. Polonsky, green marketing can be defined as, “All activities designed to generate and facilitate any exchange intended to satisfy human needs or wants such that satisfying of these needs and wants occur with minimal detrimental input on the national environment.”

Green marketing involves developing and promoting products and services that satisfy customers want and need for Quality, Performance, Affordable Pricing and Convenience without having a detrimental input on the environment.

Meaning

Green marketing refers to the process of selling products and/or services based on their environmental benefits. Such a product or service may be environmentally friendly in it or produced and/or packaged in an environmentally friendly way.

The obvious assumption of green marketing is that potential consumers will view a product or service’s “greenness” as a benefit and base their buying decision accordingly. The not-so-obvious assumption of green marketing is that consumers will be willing to pay more for green products than they would for a less-green comparable alternative product – an assumption that, in my opinion, has not been proven conclusively.

While green marketing is growing greatly as increasing numbers of consumers are willing to back their environmental consciousnesses with their dollars, it can be dangerous. The public tends to be skeptical of green claims to begin with and companies can seriously damage their brands and their sales if a green claim is discovered to be false or contradicted by a company’s other products or practices. Presenting a product or service as green when it’s not is called green washing.

Definition

According to the American Marketing Association, green marketing is the marketing of products that are presumed to be environmentally safe. Thus green marketing incorporates a broad range of activities, including product modification, changes to the production process, packaging changes, as well as modifying advertising. Yet defining green marketing is not a simple task where several meanings intersect and contradict each other; an example of this will be the existence of varying social, environmental and retail definitions attached to this term. Other similar terms used are Environmental Marketing and Ecological Marketing.

The legal implications of marketing claims call for caution. Misleading or overstated claims can lead to regulatory or civil challenges. In the USA, the Federal Trade Commission provides some guidance on environmental marketing claims.

Three keys to successful green marketing

Show potential customers that you follow green business practices and you could reap more green on your bottom line. Green Marketing isn’t just a catchphrase; it’s a marketing strategy that can help you get more customers and make more money. But only if you do it right.

For green marketing to be effective, you have to do three things; be genuine, educate your customers, and give them the opportunity to participate.

1) Being genuine means that a) that you are actually doing what you claim to be doing in your green marketing campaign and b) that the rest of your business policies are consistent with whatever you are doing that’s environmentally friendly. Both these conditions have to be met for your business to establish the kind of environmental credentials that will allow a green marketing campaign to succeed.

2) Educating your customers isn’t just a matter of letting people know you’re doing whatever you’re doing to protect the environment, but also a matter of letting them know why it matters. Otherwise, for a significant portion of your target market, it’s a case of “So what?” and your green marketing campaign goes nowhere.

3) Giving your customers an opportunity to participate means personalizing the benefits of your environmentally friendly actions, normally through letting the customer take part in positive environmental action.

Evolution of Green Marketing

The green marketing has evolved over a period of time. According to Peattie (2001), the evolution of green marketing has three phases. First phase was termed as “Ecological” green marketing, and during this period all marketing activities were concerned to help environment problems and provide remedies for environmental problems. Second phase was “Environmental” green marketing and the focus shifted on clean technology that involved designing of innovative new products, which take care of pollution and waste issues. Third phase was “Sustainable” green marketing. It came into prominence in the late 1990s and early 2000.

Why Green Marketing?

As resources are limited and human wants are unlimited, it is important for the marketers to utilize the resources efficiently without waste as well as to achieve the organization’s objective. So green marketing is inevitable.

There is growing interest among the consumers all over the world regarding protection of environment. Worldwide evidence indicates people are concerned about the environment and are changing their behavior. As a result of this, green marketing has emerged which speaks for growing market for sustainable and socially responsible products and services.

Benefits of Green Marketing

Companies that develop new and improved products and services with environment inputs in mind give themselves access to new markets, increase their profit sustainability, and enjoy a competitive advantage over the companies which are not concerned for the environment.

Adoption of Green Marketing

There are basically five reasons for which a marketer should go for the adoption of green marketing. They are –

Opportunities or competitive advantage Corporate social responsibilities (CSR) Government pressure Competitive pressure Cost or profit issues

Green Marketing Mix

Every company has its own favorite marketing mix. Some have 4 P’s and some have 7 P’s of marketing mix. The 4 P’s of green marketing are that of a conventional marketing but the challenge before marketers is to use 4 P’s in an innovative manner.

 Product

The ecological objectives in planning products are to reduce resource consumption and pollution and to increase conservation of scarce resources (Keller man, 1978).

Price

Price is a critical and important factor of green marketing mix. Most consumers will only be prepared to pay additional value if there is a perception of extra product value. This value may be improved performance, function, design, visual appeal, or taste. Green marketing should take all these facts into consideration while charging a premium price.

Promotion

There are three types of green advertising: –

ü      Ads that address a relationship between a product/service and the biophysical environment

ü      Those that promote a green lifestyle by highlighting a product or service

ü      Ads that present a corporate image of environmental responsibility

Place

The choice of where and when to make a product available will have significant impact on the customers. Very few customers will go out of their way to buy green products.

Strategies

The marketing strategies for green marketing include: –

Marketing Audit (including internal and external situation analysis) Develop a marketing plan outlining strategies with regard to 4 P’s Implement marketing strategies Plan results evaluation

Challenges Ahead

ü      Green products require renewable and recyclable material, which is costly

ü      Requires a technology, which requires huge investment in R & D

ü      Water treatment technology, which is too costly

ü      Majority of the people are not aware of green products and their uses

ü      Majority of the consumers are not willing to pay a premium for green products

Some Cases

ü      McDonald’s restaurant’s napkins, bags are made of recycled paper.

ü      Coca-Cola pumped syrup directly from tank instead of plastic which saved 68 million pound/year.

ü      Badarpur Thermal Power station of NTPC in Delhi is devising ways to utilize coal-ash that has been a major source of air and water pollution.

ü      Barauni refinery of IOC is taken steps for restricting air and water pollutants.

Conclusion

Green marketing should not neglect the economic aspect of marketing. Marketers need to understand the implications of green marketing. If you think customers are not concerned about environmental issues or will not pay a premium for products that are more eco-responsible, think again. You must find an opportunity to enhance you product’s performance and strengthen your customer’s loyalty and command a higher price.  Green marketing is still in its infancy and a lot of research is to be done on green marketing to fully explore its potential.

References:

Chopra, S. Lakshmi (2007), “Turning Over a New Leaf”, Indian Management, Vol-64, April-2007 Ottman, J.A. et al, “Avoiding Green Marketing Myopia”, Environment, Vol-48, June-2006 www.greenmarketing.net/stratergic.html www.epa.qld.gov.au/sustainable_ industries

 

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essanteworldwide.com Why Essanté is the next Green Running Giant? Their philosophy Since its inception six years ago, Essanté has been devoted to the organic way of life and after years of development, they have succeeded in bringing you products with the high quality you demand and the environmentally-responsible processes you have been looking for. Essanté is one of a kind. Variety of products Essanté continues to develop the products that are in demand. Organic weight loss products, supplements, even tooth polish-products that you can’t find in an organic form anywhere else—are all in one place. With future products for household cleaning, laundry care, and a host of others, the sky’s the limit. Sharing the Wealth Essanté offers people devoted to organics great products and an outstanding business opportunity. Making money with products that aren’t destroying the environment and are great for you—what more could you ask for?

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Imitaasi

In this video the Comcaac explain how Western companies came to their communities — promising lots of money — but causing climate change, contamination and depletion of their natural resources. The Comcaac are proud of their wisdoms on how to conserve nature and feel responsible to leave a healthy and alive Earth behind for the coming generations. This video was made by indigenous representatives of the Comcaac community of Punta Chueca — who were trained together with Yaqui representatives during a participatory video training that took place in Vicam, Sonora (Northern Mexico) in August 2010. At the end of the training the participants made plans to produce more videos by introducing the PV process to their community members. In February 2011 they will have a meeting during which they will share their new videos with the representatives of the Yaqui community. The intention is that this process will seed participatory media hubs in both Seri and Yaqui territories. The project was facilitated by InsightShare’s Latin America Director Maja and Raymundo from the Asociacion Qolla Aymara (in Puno, Peru) as part of Conversations with the Earth. Launched in April 2009, Conversations with the Earth is a collective opportunity to build a global movement for an indigenous-controlled community media network. CWE works with a growing network of indigenous groups and communities living in critical ecosystems around the world, from the Atlantic Rainforest to Central Asia, from the

New York. Shanghai. London. Mexico City. Johannesburg. Berlin. Mumbai. São Paulo. Istanbul. These cities will provide the testing ground for our urban future. The late 20th Century was the age of economic globalisation. The first part of the 21st Century will be the age of the city, the Urban Age. For the first time in the history of humanity, more than half of the earths population lives in an urban area. In China, India, Africa, and Latin America, urban populations are exploding and cities are growing exponentially. At the same time, many developed cities are shrinking and being radically restructured as a result of shifting economic bases and new patterns of migration. With investment in urban real estate, infrastructure and renovation becoming the driving force behind economic growth, the physical and social landscapes of the city are being powerfully altered. Urban policymakers are struggling to balance this massive growth in public and private investment with more sustainable forms of urban development. Questions regarding the shape, size, density and distribution of the city have become increasingly complex and politicised. The concept of the city has come to play a central role in the minds of civic leaders and urban policymakers. The design of the built environment, the distribution of urban density, and their impacts on social cohesion and quality of life are at the forefront of political discussions in towns and cities across the globe. Politicians, investors

Staffan Nilsson: ‘Engaging people for a sustainable Europe’

On 20th October 2010, the Committee has elected its new Presidency for the mandate 2010-2013. The Swedish member Staffan NILSSON has been elected President. The Vice-Presidency is in the hands of the Maltese member Anna Maria DARMANIN (in charge of communication) and of the Polish member Jacek KRAWCZYK (in charge of the budget). bit.ly Staffan Nilsson’s personality, professional skills and commitment to civil society ideals, which the EESC has long nourished and has worked for over the years, led to his election as President of the European Economic and Social Committee on 20 October 2010. Staffan Nilsson is a staunch supporter of the EU, whose primary purpose is to bring lasting peace to the continent, and a tireless advocate of sustainable growth, which is the best way of financing a social model serving the common good of all Europeans, and of defending our values internationally. “Engaging people for a sustainable Europe” is Staffan’s political message for his term of office. He is politically committed to ensuring maximum civic engagement in Europe’s endeavours to foster environmental, economic and social sustainability. Nilsson is a veteran leader in the EESC. Before becoming President of the EESC, he was President of Group III (Various Interests) for six years, and Vice-president for another six. Since 1995, when he became a member of the EESC and Group III, he has actively contributed his expertise to the work of the EESC, mainly in the fields of agriculture

Daw Aung San Suu Kyi’s Special Message to World Economic Forum 28 January 2011 Distinguished guests – heads of state, government and UN officials, leaders of global companies, representatives of the media, academia, NGOs, and young global leaders: I am very honoured and privileged to have this opportunity to address the World Economic Forum in Davos. I would especially like to extend my appreciation to Professor Klaus Schwab and the organizers of this influential gathering of leaders who are committed to improving the state of this planet. Over the past few years, despite my isolation from much of the world, I have been able to follow closely the global response to the economic downturn through listening assiduously to radio broadcasts. While the challenges were immense, the response was both swift and strong. Of course much still remains to be done. Our global interdependence has compelled and resulted in increased cooperation. In this context, however, I would like to speak on behalf of the 55 million people of Burma who have for the most part been left behind. We yearn to be a part of the global community: not only to be economically and socially connected, but also to achieve the domestic political stability and national reconciliation that would enable us to fully address the needs of our people. Economic policies linked to human development and capacity buildings are the best path to the achievement of stability in a democratic transition. We have already missed so
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Q&A: Why is the Green Party sexist?

Question by slickwilber: Why is the Green Party sexist?
The following are the Green Party 10 key values: (see #7)
1. Ecological Wisdom
2. Social Justice
3. Grassroots Democracy
4. Nonviolence
5. Decentralization
6. Community-Based Economics
7. Feminism
8. Respect for Diversity
9. Personal and Global Responsibility
10. Future Focus

Best answer:

Answer by Begum G
Unethical people tend to abuse nature,and those same people also tend to be against women, trying to block womens creativity as they are jealous that average women give birth to 2-3 people;to which their own average creativity does not match; trying to prevent womens any other creativity.Men generally.

What do you think? Answer below!

Region: V4 turns 20

Region: V4 turns 20
It wasn’t supposed to last this long. On Feb. 15, the coalition of the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland and Slovakia – known as the Visegrad Four – turned 20 years old.
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Delay in disbursing funds to poor countries disappointing: Ramesh
New Delhi, Feb 27 (IANS) Environment Minister Jairam Ramesh Sunday termed the delay in disbursement of fast-start funding by developed countries to poor countries as the ‘biggest disappointment’ and ‘betrayal of trust’, saying this could make the atmosphere at the Durban climate change talks later this year ‘clouded with doubt and suspicion’.
Read more on IANS India Private Limited via Yahoo! India News

UK ‘could slash UN food aid funding’
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An Arabian wind
From Gibraltar to the Persian Gulf, the Arab world is in revolt, in a reformation that will affect our country and the rest of Europe.
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Externalities Cost and Benefits and Proposed Solutions

What is meant by transnational.

a- Externalities.

b- How is the world trying to deal with them?

c- What are the problems in implementing the proposed solution?

Externality is defined as a cost or benefit external to an exchange.1 Thus externalities occurs when there is a disruption between social cost and private costs through indirect effects. Decision makers do not internalize all costs this gives rise to the ‘spill over effect’ for which society pays the full opportunity cost of any activity that uses its scarce resources for which no compensation is paid or received. The individual decision-makers is the firm or the customer and the external costs and benefits will not enter into the individual’s or firm’s decision-making processes. 2

There are two types of externalities. The Positive Externalities like for example education, vaccination innovations in new technologies where the social cost is incurred by the whole society as a result of the production/ consumption of the good. The Negative Externalities occurs when the social cost is bigger than the private cost. Environmental pollution and degradation within a state or region or on a global conveys information about constantly changing market conditions and allows for flexibility in decision-making. Example can be automobile exhaust, cigarette smoking, poisonous discharge of wastes in the rivers/ sea etc., There is distortion whereby there is market failures so that the marginal social cost is not equal to marginal social benefit as opposed to the public good. There is distortion interfering with the working of the ‘invisible hand’.

Transnational Externalities are environmental problems at a global level such as polluting, depletion and degradation of natural resources on a global level arise because of market failures and government failures. Transnational Externalities may for example cause the global warming climate change or greenhouse gas emission and ozone depletion. How and why does this happen?

Gases like carbon dioxide and water vapour which naturally occur in Earth’s atmosphere, trap heat and makes life possible on earth. Humans are greatly adding to the presence of such gases , commonly referred to as green house gases (GCG’s) by burning fossil fuels and through industrial activities as well as various kind of land use like deforestation. These work against us when they trap too much sunlight and block outward radiation, create climatic hazards and disrupt the ecosystems. Though public good can be derived through benefit for agriculture and forestry in various locations by increasing productivity as a result of longer growing seasons and increased fertilization but the public bad are more for there might be less safe water for drinking because of acid rain for example, rising of sea level might cause flooding of coastal areas and wide spread of infectious diseases never heard before.

What can be the solutions to these externalities? There are three main theories about how to combat negative externalities dealt by Pigou, coase and Baumol and Oates. Pigou considers the problems of smoke emission by a factory by imposing a per unit tax on output of the firm generating the negative externality. The per unit tax should be equal to the difference between the social marginal cost and the private marginal cost to the social optimal output. Coase is of opinion that the pollution problem is of reciprocal nature where the government intervention is needed to specify standards or to levying a tax to correct the externalities which is liable to the firm reciprocally. As for Baumol and Oates solution are decide the ambient standards based on available scientific knowledge or social preferences, pursue one of the following two options namely standards and charges approach or standards and permits approach. The United Nation Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) held at Rio de Janeiro in 1992 specifies to incorporate environmental costs in decisions of producers and consumers in order to reverse the tendency to treat environment as a “free good” and to move more fully towards the integration of social and environmental costs in economic activities so that prices reflect the relative scarcity and total value of resources and contribute towards the prevention of environment degradation , to include whenever appropriate the use of market principles in the framing of economic instruments and policies to pursue sustainable development (UNCED AGENDA21, Chapter 8 pp85)

The solution takes three aspects into consideration namely trade related, pollution and biodiversity in regulating global public bad, hazardous chemicals, trade in hazardous chemicals, trade in endangered species, exports of goods causing environmental problems in importing countries whether processes and production methods requirements are legitimated under GATT rules. The pollution charges are based on the volume of effluents/ emissions and concentrations of pollutants Assignments of tradable pollution permits and creation of markets to determine their prices. Thus the polluter pays principle is to install pollution abatement on equipment or otherwise change production techniques so as to reduce the amount of pollution, to reduce pollution-causing activity or simply pays the price to pollute.

The permit for polluting would be a worldwide allowance that reallocate abatement efforts to those who could do so most effectively. Economic incentives, or market-based instruments covers the idea of creating charges or tax-type systems that encourage producers and consumers to internalize the costs of their economic actions. Polluters have to pay for their implicit claim on the environmental services. 3.. The advantages of pollution trading show cost effectiveness in achieving pollution control in a less costly way because the pollution tax causes the supply curve to rise. As a result the quantity consumed tends to decrease the costs being higher for the purchaser. But the price received by the producer is lower than it was before, as the tax is paid to the government. The environmental cost is then shared between the producer and the consumer of the good. The more competition there is on the market, the less the consumer will pay. 4 Eliminating all pollution is impossible . Economic approach of permits and pigavian taxes reduce the cost of environmental protection and should increase public’s demand for a clean environment.

Collective action is needed at the global level at the citizenship level. Green peace, friends of the earth are non profit organisation funded by donations whose aim is to protect the environment. The Integration different types of businesses which merge and take over and decide jointly on the optimum input to achieve equilibrium or less in social cost and to private cost benefiting society and also the firms. for example the more an orchard owner is encouraged to plant more trees and to increase his output in quality, quantity and variety of fruits the more another neighboring business dealing with bees would progress. Moral codes and sanctions based on values and civic education.

The role of technological improvements can play in reducing carbon emissions and lowering the costs of those reductions. Recent policy proposals have included tax credits for residential and commercial purchasers of new energy-efficient homes and energy-efficient equipment such as electric and natural gas heat pumps, natural gas water heaters, advanced central air conditioners, and fuel cells as well as investment tax credits for fuel-efficient vehicles powered by electricity fuel cells and hybrid power. In addition tax incentives other proposals include direct spending on research, development and deployment of energy-efficient The incentive for pollution reduction works as businesses would make profits on extra permits. Enforce use of green technology for Mauritius example the use of bagasse to produce electricity or of coconut oil to produce fuel as alternative.

However, there are many obstacles in implementing solutions to externalities. Economic cost for the same physical quantity of pollution would be different from different locations. For example India’s pollution control policy is characterized by a command and control regime. Penalties are unrelated to the extent of violations, it is the compliance or non compliance not the extent of compliance which is taken into consideration. . The limitations of anti-pollution legislations for ‘standard setting’ to be effective, need knowledge of costs and benefits curves. Marginal cost of reducing pollution for individual firms. Some may find it costly to reduce pollution for individual firms. How to calculate that? Contingent valuation method relies on survey material in which people are asked, via questionnaire or interview. Travel cost techniques in terms of the money spent getting recreational facilities, wildlife reserve, forest or canal.

Markets can exist and function efficiently only when property rights on goods and service exchanged are well defined and transaction costs of exchange are small. Market-based control regime but allowance trading would benefit poor countries and excluding developing economies would invite leakage and undermine a treaty’s environmental effectiveness. The relative roles of developed countries or developing countries assume significance because they are in different stages of development and their tradeoffs between environment and development differ. It does not take into account the Marginal cost of reducing pollution for individual firms. Standards may not be effective.

The transfer of technology and the provision of financial resources operated in a manner which was far from favourable to the industrialisation of the Third World: industrialization that was indispensable for the changing of this vertical international division of labour.5 The new techno-economic world is very critical in that pressures on techno-economic world order is very decisive and formidable than ever before. 6 The neoliberal regime as it has been sustained by global financial institutions and other donor agencies, is very critical in that pressures on the Third World are more decisive and formidable than ever before. 7 This would lead to ‘carbon colonialism’ if wealthy investors could depress allowance and credit prices leading poorer countries countries to sell out their future at loss. This sincere concern about market power and must be addressed on its merits. These are fundamental human right and we should not be debased by considering them in economic terms..

The seed that allow plants, to grow the water that allows irrigation of fields. Every one of these resources is today being handed over through local agents of globalisation, through functionaries of the World Bank and IMF to a handful of cooperations. 8 It is an economy of disposible people.9 Trade that is based on justice to the earth and is therefore ecological.

In conclusion Pigian policies may apply but to what extent? How far has globalisation affect Externalities? How to achieve cost effectiveness in pollution control in a less costly way because environment is a scarce good? We cannot dissociate ourselves from the fact that the rapport between rich and poor countries is often detrimental to the poor , the rich are always trying to take advantages on the poor countries at any cost. We may consider the recent invasion of Afghanistan where tons of bombs were rained in the search of Ben Laden, a ghost, the same applies to Iraq which has been colonised for its fuel. Who is the greatest polluter of the environment the small farmer who has used centuries old methods of farming or these multi-nationals with their OGM (Genetically Modified Organic) and all sorts of chemicals. The better way is to sensitize and empower the people through cooperative movements to find alternatives the whole world would gain. These should be achieved through community building. Long Run firm which would benefice from taking into consideration implicit cost should be encouraged.

In the event we do not act now, if we leave every thing to the World Trade Organisation and their allies who are more anxious about heir own interest than any other thing, we are bound to food allergies and diseases like Mad Cow and SARS. The icebergs are already melting down, climate and natural hazards are more common. Already many species have disappeared or are on the verge of disappearing. Old and unknown disease have appeared, we should get prepared for the end of life as we know it on our planet may be the end of humankind, itself. Consciousness raising 10 is indispensable.

Notes

1- Peter Maunder, Danny Myers, Nancy Wall, Roger LeRoy Miller, 2000 Haper Collins Publishers Limited, ‘Economics Explained’. pp71

2-Peter Maunder, Danny Myers, Nancy Wall, Roger LeRoy Miller, 2000 Haper Collins Publishers Limited, ‘Economics Explained’ pp183

3- Peter Maunder, Danny Myers, Nancy Wall, Roger LeRoy Miller, 2000 Haper Collins Publishers Limited, ‘Economics Explained’ pp184

4-Ibid

5- Rajen Harshe and K.M Seethi, Orient Long man Private Limited 2005, “ Engaging with the world critcal reflections on India’s Foreign Policy pp5

6- Rajen Harshe and K.M Seethi, Orient Long man Private Limited 2005, “ Engaging with the world critcal reflections on India’s Foreign Policy pp7

7- Rajen Harshe and K.M Seethi, Orient Long man Private Limited 2005, “ Engaging with the world critcal reflections on India’s Foreign Policy pp47

8- . Globalisation is a war against people and against the earth. Vandana Shiva, 2002,l’edikasyon pu travayer, ‘Globalaisation, Food Security and War’ pp7

9. Globalisation is a war against people and against the earth. Vandana Shiva, 2002,l’edikasyon pu travayer, ‘Globalaisation, Food Security and War’ pp5 –

10- Globalisation is a war against people and against the earth. Vandana Shiva, 2002,l’edikasyon pu travayer, ‘Globalaisation, Food Security and War’ pp33

Bibliography

1- Peter Maunder, Danny Myers, Nancy Wall, Roger LeRoy Miller, 2000 Haper Collins Publishers Limited, ‘Economics Explained’.

2-Rajen Harshe and K.M Seethi, Orient Long man Private Limited 2005, ‘Engaging with the world critcal reflections on India’s Foreign Policy’

3-Globalisation is a war against people and against the earth. Vandana Shiva, 2002, l’edikasyon pu travayer, ‘Globalaisation, Food Security and War’

4-U. Sankar (Madras School of Economics).

5-Jonathan Baert Wiener Fall 1997 Ressources, ‘Global Trade in Greenhouse Gas Control, Market Merits and Critics’ Concerns” .

6- Michael A. Toman “Climate Change E€conomics and Policies, an Overview’

7-AdamB.Jaffe, Richard G. Newell and Robert N.Stavins, an RFF Anthology Energy-efficient Technologies and Climate Change Policies, Issues and Evidence.

8-Jonathan Baert Wiener, an RFF Anthology, ‘ policy design for international Greenhouse Gas Control

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The President and Prime Minister Recep Tayyip Erdogan of Turkey speak to the media after the two leaders met at the White House. December 7, 2009. (Public Domain)

Autism, the Common Form of Disorder in Humans

Autism is the neurodevelopment mess which manifests itself in obvious abnormal communal interface, pattern of interest, communication ability and pattern of presentation. The precise etiology of autism is unidentified; researchers believe that autism is the consequences of genetically mediate vulnerabilities to the ecological triggers. There is deviation about the nature of mechanism and magnitude for such ecological factor; researchers have recognized out seven genes that are common among those diagnosed as autistic. Diagnosis is mostly based on the list of psychiatric criterion, and a chain of standardized health check tests might also be used. Entire bodily and neurological assessment will typically be the constituent of diagnosing autism. It has been speculated that autism is not a lone condition but a group of numerous distinct situation which manifest it in related ways.
It has been estimated that autism occurs inside one in every 1000 child world wide. For the family that formerly has one autistic child had the higher danger of having next autistic child in the family. Well Autism is found 2 to 4 times extra familiar in boys; the Girls suffering from this mess lean to have cruel symptoms and superior cognitive mutilation.
Autism treatment is normally diagnosed in the minor cases; Autism diagnosis is usually done using “ICD-10, DSM-IV “or other protocols base clarification of activities, and not regularly followed up with a complete neuropsychiatry, neurobiological assessment. Such treatments are fairly involved and can be beyond the capital of numerous parents.
The professional they work with may select only positive portion which develops depending on their clarification of the child and his history.
Following the account, more than one treatment could be found out to be suitable for the patient.
If metabolic disorders are suspected, DAN (Defeat Autism Now!) protocol could be used to locate it. Tests for possible metabolic deficits are Organic Acids, Urinary Peptides, Gluten Sensitivity, Liver detoxification, Stool Analysis, Minerals, Amino Acid Analysis, Food Allergies, Minerals, Genetic Tests, and Immunological Tests
There are a number of ethical challenges to the treatment of the autism but parents are responding well to the moral treatment, claiming the recompense of their children which is established from these treatments is too significant. In addition, these parents don’t consider these treatments as destructive as people say they are. Autism is the most severe form of disorder therefore; its cure is very essential and should be done prior to it becomes much of problem.

I have been writing on health and various medicines for various sites till this date, and would like to write more on various environmental and people based topics in future. to know more about autism and its effects on human click onto http://www.myhealthylive.com/

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