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Ferguson on China: GDP, Nationalism, and the Internet

Complete video at: fora.tv Niall Ferguson, author of The Ascent of Money, concludes that the legitimacy of China is not strictly dependent on GDP growth, but on also relies heavily on nationalism – which the Internet facilitates. “The more economic problems they have, the more it seems to me they will rely on nationalism,” he says. —– Niall Ferguson, the Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History at Harvard University, and The Atlantic’s James Fallows discuss the financial relationship between the United States and China as part of the 2009 Aspen Ideas Festival. The event was moderated by Scott Stossel. – Aspen Institute Niall Ferguson, MA, D.Phil., is the Laurence A. Tisch Professor of History at Harvard University. He is a resident faculty member of the Minda de Gunzburg Center for European Studies. He is also a Senior Research Fellow of Jesus College, Oxford University, and a Senior Fellow of the Hoover Institution, Stanford University.

In this video I attempt to provide an argument in support of Marxism that is based on the Science of Evolutionary Biology. Note: Darwinism has often been misrepresented (Ayn Rand.) For example, you might often hear people refer to “survival of the fittest.” Sometimes people mistakenly interpret this to mean that “might it right.” This is not the case. Survival of the fittest mainly applies to POPULATIONS, not individuals. It is the fittest population (species) that survives. “Survival of the fittest” should not be taken to mean that selfishness and greed are the healthiest of human virtues. On the contrary, it is compassion and altruism which lead to circumstances that are favorable to human survival and reproduction. Humans, like other primates and social animals, are a species which functions best as a group; when we are working together for the common good: and thus we find a biological basis for altruism and virtue.
Video Rating: 4 / 5

Short-term business strategies a danger in 2011

Short-term business strategies a danger in 2011
Short term quick fix thinking must go in 2011 if business is to make any sustainable progress, this according to Chris Bell Managing Director Customer Experiences an organisation specialising in the development of high quality customer experiences.
Read more on Scoop.co.nz

Audit portrays Green River parks in bad light
A performance audit of Utah State Parks was recently released by the Legislative Auditor General for the state of Utah. The audit was requested by the Natural Resources Appropriations Subcommittee to identify strategies for …
Read more on Emery County Progress

Councilman Proposes Zones to Boost Green Industry
Los Angeles Councilman Richard Alarcón is proposing to have the city’s planning department consider green industry and environmental justice issues when community plans are being updated.
Read more on San Fernando Valley Business Journal

Economic Growth Theory: a breakthrough by Peter Belohlavek

Peter Belohlavek’s research demonstrated that economic growth is produced when there is an increase of technology, scarcity, monetary circulation and competitiveness in an environment. This growth theory is applicable to micro and macroeconomics. The Unicist standard defined the objects that are necessary to be upgraded in order to foster economic growth. The driver for growth is the increase of monetary circulation but its catalyst is competitiveness. Apprehending the concept of economic growth allows designing growth strategies. Learn more: www.unicist.org
Video Rating: 5 / 5

SoCal Companies Benefit From New Green Tax Incentives

Do you own and operate a business in the Los Angeles Basin? If so, were you aware of the new green tax incentives that can help to improve your company’s bottom line?

By reducing energy consumption at work, your company may be eligible for a number of green tax credits from both Sacramento and Washington D.C. In addition to these money-saving eco-credits, your company may be eligible for addition tax breaks if it is located in one of forty-two “Enterprise Zones” – communities that have been identified by the State of California as being economically disadvantaged. These of course are in addition to any green tax incentives for which your business may qualify.

Green energy tax incentives cover a wide variety of issues and actions that can be used by the private sector to help promote a cleaner environment while contributing to economic growth. These green tax credits may include the purchase or lease of hybrid, electric or flex-fuel vehicles as well as things such as solar panels and wind generators. Such eco credits
can also cover the purchase of computer hardware or software used to control energy usage when it comes to lighting and HVAC systems as well as eco-friendly building materials and insulation.

In fact, such green tax incentives can be used to offset up to nine percent of the cost of such equipment and technology when used within specified Enterprise Zones (keep in mind that many such green tax credits can be used only within such zones, so be sure to consult with a qualified CPA).

In an era during which many American workers and the general public are becoming increasingly hostile and suspicious of big corporations (and rightly so), it will behoove your business to publicly demonstrate its commitment to the good of the community by hiring local people who might not otherwise have a job while making a good-faith effort to promote a clean and healthy environment. This is what green tax incentives have been designed for. Even if yours is a small-to-medium sized business, demonstrating a sense of corporate responsibility and commitment to social, economic and environmental justice will serve not only your public image, but your profit margin as well in the form of green energy tax incentives and eco credits.

There is nothing at all wrong with enlightened self-interest, especially when it comes to your livelihood. Green tax credits can benefit your company for conferring benefits upon the community that supports your efforts; contact a qualified SoCal CPA today to find out how green tax incentives can help your business and the social good.

Wayne Hemrick writes about–
green tax incentives.

Article from articlesbase.com

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DealBook: At Davos, Many Problems Await World Leaders

DealBook: At Davos, Many Problems Await World Leaders
Leaders from around the world will gather in Switzerland to try to rescue the planet. It’s a safe bet that, for the 41st year in a row, they will fail.
Read more on International Herald Tribune

Saudi CBank head: No plans to de-peg from dollar
Saudi Arabia has no plans to de-peg its currency from the U.S. dollar, the oil-rich nation’s central bank governor said Monday.
Read more on AP via Yahoo! Finance

UN chief condemns rights expert’s 9/11 comments

Read more on AlertNet

New Game Rules Trigger a Rebirth By Ronn Torossian


Every time I come across the declaration of “the death of PR” I am amused, reminding myself of the “if-I-had-a-dollar-for-each-time…” joke. Indeed, the economic downturn that hit global markets and worldwide cross-industry economies affected us tremendously. The clients were not as engaged in new ventures, new businesses was a rare scene to be found and the world was mostly uncertain about what to do next.

Nevertheless, it is through such economic challenges that the adapting prevail and new game rules emerge for those who wish to play. This is the way PR experienced a re-birth in the past three years, becoming even stronger than it used to be and now dominating major transformations in media and communications management.

I recall the dogmatic UK giant Chime Communications head, Lord Tim Bell announcing (again) that PR has come to an end. He claimed the outlook for PR in years to come seems “dull, weak, and depressed”. It was due to an economic downturn and immense losses that made him feel this way halfway through 2003. Joining his despair were major “industry experts” who noticed a decline in PR activity for businesses, analysts who maintained that advertising conglomerates are the only ones who can sustain the strong winds, and finally those who put together a growing crisis in journalism and media and their plummeting profits.

In fact, when you blend all of these forces together, they were not too far from what had really happened and what reinvented PR as I see it today.

Self-examination

The hard questions on value and practice of public relations and related practices such as public affairs made this industry look into its own beliefs and examine their validity. After all, when economic times turn bad it is the communication-related positions in the organization that part with it first. The inner search led PR to its greatest era: a pioneer and leader of the new and social media, its technologies and the ownership of its communication channels.
The U.S media and communications market felt the earth move under its feet with the rise of social media combined with new mobile devices which offer connectivity anytime, anywhere. It affected the journalism field first, moved to advertising, and by the time it reached PR the landscape was much clearer and open for practitioners to quickly adapt to. Three years later, it is now crystal clear that no effective communications can afford to ignore social media, SEO, content management, speed and quality. There are more people now accessing more information, faster while every company, celebrity, brand and product are under more public scrutiny than ever.

The trends today place PR on the top of the communications pyramid. The dominance of social media is an undisputable PR agency role. I have not a single client today that doesn’t expect, and be provided with, a strategic PR plan that consists of goals in the area of social media branding and positioning. SEO has turned into an integral part of the online branding process, through the understanding of the importance of online presence. Content management and blogging allows brands to communicate to their target audiences freely addressing “side topics” that aren’t conveyed in the mainstream media.

Huge impact

These trends have made an enormous impact in the U.S market today. The profitability and growth models have been modified accordingly. Growth in PR is now attributed to the decline in advertising spending as well. Corporations and large businesses have realized the limits of advertising in offering a two-way communication channel with their publics, in an age of constant social virtual interaction. An ad can only generate so much action in social media. A well-crafted message, on the other hand, is the key in today’s 140-character pace of things.

During the past two consecutive years PR has experienced stable growth: 4% in 2008 and 3% in 2009. PR in America is estimated to hit .4 billion by 2014. A higher demand in PR services by corporations is the leading force in these trends.

PR has successfully rebranded itself, bringing a mature approach to strategic planning and management; be it reputation management, brand, media or crisis management. It provides a devoted attitude to research-based practices, allows for accurate evaluation and success measurement tools, and represents the use of social and online media for marketing and positioning goals.
I am very much encouraged by recent PR firm acquisitions by multinational public relations conglomerates. This excitement and investment stems from the continued PR growth opportunities that exist. We are blessed to be in the center of a flourishing industry and one that only gains more momentum every day. PR today as an industry goes hand in hand with global trends in mobile and advanced technologies, leading any observer to the conclusion that the PR outlook is colorful, strong, and exciting.


Ronn Torossian is president and CEO of 5WPR (www.5wpr.com, one of the 20 largest independent Public Relations agencies in the U.S. Named to the “40 under 40” list by PR Week & Advertising Age, Ronn Torossian was a semi-finalist for the Ernst & Young 2010 Entrepreneur of the Year Award, and may be reached at http://www.ronntorossianupdate.com.

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How are human economics and ecology linked?

Question by ?THE BEST?: How are human economics and ecology linked?

Best answer:

Answer by Bored Goblin
Environmental damage is by-product of production and consumption that economics studies.
Moreover, we only care about environmenal damage because it might reduce our quality of life, but so will reduction of production and consumption, so we need to find a economic compromise between these two.

Give your answer to this question below!

Franklin County business projects got $33.9M during Rendell’s 8 years as governor

Franklin County business projects got .9M during Rendell’s 8 years as governor
Gov. Tom Corbett has said government does not create jobs, but must create the climate for job growth.
Read more on Chambersburg Public Opinion

Prestige Salon wins award for business development
PLYMOUTH — It was exciting for Prestige Salon and Spa to be chosen for the Chamber of Commerce’s Business Development Award this year, said salon owner Bozena Przybylko.
Read more on The Bristol Press

China’s green dream
If China wants to avoid choking on its growing urban population, places like Tianjin Eco-City have to take off
Read more on National Post

Athabasca Oil Sands

History

The Athabasca oil sands are named after the Athabasca River which cuts through the heart of the deposit, and traces of the heavy oil are readily observed on the river banks. Historically, the bitumen was used by the indigenous Cree and Dene Aboriginal peoples to waterproof their canoes. The oil deposits are located within the boundaries of Treaty 8, and several First Nations of the area are involved with the sands.

Athabasca oil sands on the banks of the river, c. 1900

The Athabasca oil sands first came to the attention of European fur traders in 1719 when Wa-pa-su, a Cree trader, brought a sample of bituminous sands to the Hudson’s Bay Company post at York Factory on Hudson Bay where Henry Kelsey was the manager. In 1778, Peter Pond, another fur trader and a founder of the rival North West Company, became the first European to see the Athabasca deposits after discovering the Methye Portage which allowed access to the rich fur resources of the Athabasca River system from the Hudson Bay watershed.

In 1788, fur trader Alexander MacKenzie (who later discovered routes to both the Arctic and Pacific Oceans from this area) wrote: “At about 24 miles (39 km) from the fork (of the Athabasca and Clearwater Rivers) are some bituminous fountains into which a pole of 20 feet (6.1 m) long may be inserted without the least resistance. The bitumen is in a fluid state and when mixed with gum, the resinous substance collected from the spruce fir, it serves to gum the Indians’ canoes.” He was followed in 1799 by map maker David Thompson and in 1819 by British Naval officer Sir John Franklin.

Sir John Richardson did the first geological assessment of the oil sands in 1848 on his way north to search for Franklin’s lost expedition. The first government-sponsored survey of the oil sands was initiated in 1875 by John Macoun, and in 1883, G.C. Hoffman of the Geological Survey of Canada tried separating the bitumen from oil sand with the use of water and reported that it separated readily. In 1888, Dr. Robert Bell, the director of the Geological Survey of Canada, reported to a Senate Committee that “The evidence … points to the existence in the Athabasca and Mackenzie valleys of the most extensive petroleum field in America, if not the world.”
In 1926, Dr. Karl Clark of the University of Alberta perfected a hot water separation process which became the basis of today’s thermal extraction process. Several attempts to implement it had varying degrees of success, but it was 1967 before the first commercially viable operation began with the opening of the Great Canadian Oil Sands (now Suncor) plant using surfactants in the separation process developed by Dr. Earl W. Malmberg of Sun Oil Company.

Oil sands production

Commercial production of oil from the Athabasca oil sands began in 1967, when Great Canadian Oil Sands Limited (then a subsidiary of Sun Oil Company but now an independent company known as Suncor Energy) opened its first mine, producing 30,000 barrels per day (4,800 m3/d) of synthetic crude oil. Development was inhibited by declining world oil prices, and the second mine, operated by the Syncrude consortium, did not begin operating until 1978, after the 1973 oil crisis sparked investor interest. However, the price of oil subsided afterwards, and although the 1979 energy crisis caused oil prices to peak again, introduction of the National Energy Program by Pierre Trudeau discouraged foreign investment in the Canadian oil industry. During the 1980s, oil prices declined to very low levels, causing considerable retrenchment in the oil industry, and the third mine, operated by Shell Canada, did not begin operating until 2003. However, as a result of oil price increases since 2003, the existing mines have been greatly expanded and new ones are being planned.

According to the Alberta Energy and Utilities Board, 2005 production of crude bitumen in the Athabasca oil sands was as follows:

2005 Production

m3/day

bbl/day

Suncor Mine

31,000

195,000

Syncrude Mine

41,700

262,000

Shell Canada Mine

26,800

169,000

In Situ Projects

21,300

134,000

TOTAL

120,800

760,000

As of 2006, output of oil sands production had increased to 1.126 million barrels per day (179,000 m3/d). Oil sands were the source of 62% of Alberta’s total oil production and 47% of all oil produced in Canada. The Alberta government believes this level of production could reach 3 Mbbl/d (480,000 m3/d) by 2020 and possibly 5 Mbbl/d (790,000 m3/d) by 2030.

Future production

As of December 2008, the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers revised its 2008-2020 crude oil forecasts to account for project cancellations and cutbacks as a result of the price declines in the second half of 2008. The revised forecast predicted that Canadian oil sands production would continue to grow, but at a slower rate than previously predicted. There would be minimal changes to 2008-2012 production, but by 2020 production could be 300,000 barrels per day (48,000 m3/d) less than its prior predictions. This would mean that Canadian oil sands production would grow from 1.2 million barrels per day (190,000 m3/d) in 2008 to 3.3 million barrels per day (520,000 m3/d) in 2020, and that total Canadian oil production would grow from 2.7 to 4.1 million barrels per day (430,000 to 650,000 m3/d) in 2020. Even accounting for project cancellations, this would place Canada among the four or five largest oil-producing countries in the world by 2020.

In early December 2007, London based BP and Calgary based Husky Energy announced a 50/50 joint venture to produce and refine bitumen from the Athabasca oil sands. BP would contribute its Toledo, Ohio refinery to the joint venture, while Husky would contribute its Sunrise oil sands project. Sunrise was planned to start producing 60,000 barrels per day (9,500 m3/d) of bitumen in 2012 and may reach 200,000 bbl/d (30,000 m3/d) by 2015-2020. BP would modify its Toledo refinery to process 170,000 bbl/d (27,000 m3/d) of bitumen directly to refined products. The joint venture would solve problems for both companies, since Husky was short of refining capacity, and BP had no presence in the oil sands. It was a change of strategy for BP, since the company historically has downplayed the importance of oil sands.

In mid December 2007, ConocoPhillips announced its intention to increase its oil sands production from 60,000 barrels per day (9,500 m3/d) to 1 million barrels per day (160,000 m3/d) over the next 20 years, which would make it the largest private sector oil sands producer in the world. ConocoPhillips currently holds the largest position in the Canadian oil sands with over 1 million acres (4000 km2) under lease. Other major oil sands producers planning to increase their production include Royal Dutch Shell (to 770,000 bbl/d (122,000 m3/d); Syncrude Canada (to 550,000 bbl/d (87,000 m3/d); Suncor Energy (to 500,000 bbl/d (79,000 m3/d) and Canadian Natural Resources (to 500,000 bbl/d (79,000 m3/d). If all these plans come to fruition, these five companies will be producing over 3.3 million bbl/d (500,000 m3/d) of oil from oil sands by 2028.

Major Athabasca Oil Sands Projects (as of December 2007)

Project Name

Type

Major Partners

National

Affiliation

2007 Production

(barrels/day)

Planned Production

(barrels/day)

Suncor

Primarily Mining

Suncor Energy

Canada

239,100

500,000

Syncrude

Mining

Syncrude

Canada (some USA)

307,000

550,000

Albian Sands

Mining

Shell(60%), Chevron(20%), Marathon(20%)

UK/Netherlands, USA

136,000

770,000

MacKay River

SAGD

Petro-Canada

Canada

  30,000

190,000

Fort Hills

Mining

Petro-Canada(60%), UTS Energy(20%), Teck(20%)

Canada

 
140,000

Foster Creek, Christina Lake

SAGD

EnCana Energy(50%), ConocoPhillips(50%)

Canada, USA

    6,000

400,000
Surmont

SAGD

Total S.A.(50%),ConocoPhillips(50%)

France, USA

193,000

Hangingstone

SAGD

Japan Canada Oil Sands (JACOS)

Japan

    8,000

  30,000

Long Lake

SAGD

Nexen(65%), OPTI Canada(35%)

Canada

240,000

Horizon

Mining and in situ

Canadian Natural Resources Limited

Canada

500,000

Jackfish I and II

SAGD

Devon Energy

USA

 ??

  70,000

Northern Lights

Mining

Total S.A.(60%), Sinopec(40%)

France, China

100,000

Kearl

Mining

Imperial Oil, ExxonMobil

USA

300,000

Sunrise

SAGD

Husky Energy(50%), BP(50%)

Canada, UK

200,000

Tucker

SAGD

Husky Energy

Canada

 ??

30,000

Oil Sands Project

Mining and SAGD

Total S.A. (76%), Oxy (15%), Inpex (10%)

France, USA, Japan

225,000

Ells River

SAGD

Chevron(60%), Marathon(20%), Shell(20%)

USA, UK/Netherlands

100,000

Terre de Grace

SAGD

Value Creation Inc

Canada

300,000

Kai Kos Dehseh

SAGD

Statoil

Norway

200,000
Black Gold Mine

Mining?

Korea National Oil Corporation

Korea

  30,000
Total

726,100

5,068,000   

Development

The key characteristic of the Athabasca deposit is that it is the only one shallow enough to be suitable for surface mining. About 10% of the Athabasca oil sands are covered by less than 75 metres (246 ft) of overburden. The mineable area as defined by the Alberta government covers 37 contiguous townships (about 3,400 km2/1,300 sq mi) north of the city of Fort McMurray. The overburden consists of 1 to 3 metres of water-logged muskeg on top of 0 to 75 metres of clay and barren sand, while the underlying oil sands are typically 40 to 60 metres thick and sit on top of relatively flat limestone rock. As a result of the easy accessibility, the world’s first oil sands mine was started by Great Canadian Oil Sands Limited (a predecessor company of Suncor Energy) in 1967. The Syncrude mine (the biggest mine in the world at 191 km2)[citation needed] followed in 1978, and the Albian Sands mine (operated by Shell Canada) in 2003. All three of these mines are associated with bitumen upgraders that convert the unusable bitumen into synthetic crude oil for shipment to refineries in Canada and the United States. At Albian, the upgrader is located at Scotford, 439 km south. The bitumen, diluted with a solvent is transferred there in a 610 millimetres (24 in) Corridor Pipeline.

Bitumen extraction

Main article: Oil sands#Extraction process

The original process for extraction of bitumen from the sands was developed by Dr. Karl Clark, working with Alberta Research Council in the 1920s. Today, all of the producers doing surface mining, such as Syncrude Canada, Suncor Energy and Albian Sands Energy etc., use a variation of the Clark Hot Water Extraction (CHWE) process. In this process, the ores are mined using open-pit mining technology. The mined ore is then crushed for size reduction. Hot water at 50 80 C is added to the ore and the formed slurry is transported using hydrotransport line to a primary separation vessel (PSV) where bitumen is recovered by flotation as bitumen froth. The recovered bitumen froth consists of 60% bitumen, 30% water and 10% solids by weight. The recovered bitumen froth needs to be cleaned to reject the contained solids and water to meet the requirement of downstream upgrading processes. Depending on the bitumen content in the ore, between 90 and 100% of the bitumen can be recovered using modern hot water extraction techniques. After oil extraction, the spent sand and other materials are then returned to the mine, which is eventually reclaimed.

More recently, in-situ methods like steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) and cyclic steam stimulation (CSS) have been developed to extract bitumen from deep deposits by injecting steam to heat the sands and reduce the bitumen viscosity so that it can be pumped out like conventional crude oil.

The standard extraction process requires huge amounts of natural gas. Currently, the oil sands industry uses about 4% of the Western Canada Sedimentary Basin natural gas production. By 2015, this may increase 2.5 fold.

According to the National Energy Board, it requires about 1,200 cubic feet (34 m3) of natural gas to produce one barrel of bitumen from in situ projects and about 700 cubic feet (20 m3) for integrated projects. Since a barrel of oil equivalent is about 6,000 cubic feet (170 m3) of gas, this represents a large gain in energy. That being the case, it is likely that Alberta regulators will reduce exports of natural gas to the United States in order to provide fuel to the oil sands plants. As gas reserves are exhausted, however, oil upgraders will likely turn to bitumen gasification to generate their own fuel. In much the same way the bitumen can be converted into synthetic crude oil, it can also be converted into synthetic natural gas.

In-situ extraction on a commercial scale is just beginning. A project nearing completion, the Long Lake Project, is designed to provide its own fuel, by on-site hydrocracking of the bitumen extracted. Long Lake Phase 1 is extracting 13,000 barrels/day of bitumen as of July 2008, ramping towards a target of 72,000 in late 2009. and “upgrading” of bitumen to liquid oil in 2007, producing 60,000 bbl/day of usable oil. The hydrocracker is scheduled to complete commissioning by September 2008.

Environmental impacts

See also: Environmental issues surrounding oil sands exploitation

Mining operations in the Athabasca oil sands. Image shows the Athabasca River about 600m from the tailings pond. NASA Earth Observatory photo, 2009.

Critics contend that government and industry measures taken to minimize environmental and health risks posed by large-scale mining operations are inadequate, causing damage to the natural environment. Objective discussion of the environmental impacts has often been clouded by polarized arguments from industry and from advocacy groups.

Land

Approximately 20% of Alberta’s oil sands are recoverable through open-pit mining, while 80% require in situ extraction technologies (largely because of their depth). Open pit mining destroys the boreal forest and muskeg. The Alberta government requires companies to restore the land to “equivalent land capability”. This means that the ability of the land to support various land uses after reclamation is similar to what existed, but that the individual land uses may not necessarily be identical. In some particular circumstances the government considers agricultural land to be equivalent to forest land. Oil sands companies have reclaimed mined land to use as pasture for wood bison instead of restoring it to the original boreal forest and muskeg. Syncrude asserts they have reclaimed 22% of their disturbed land.

Water

A Pembina Institute report stated “To produce one cubic metre (m3) of synthetic crude oil (SCO) (upgraded bitumen) in a mining operation requires about 24.5 m3 of water (net figures). Approved oil sands mining operations are currently licensed to divert 359 million m3 from the Athabasca River, or more than twice the volume of water required to meet the annual municipal needs of the City of Calgary.” and went on to say “…the net water requirement to produce a cubic metre of oil with in situ (emphasis added) production may be as little as 0.2 m3, depending on how much is recycled”. Jeffrey Simpson of the Globe and Mail paraphrased this report, saying: “A cubic metre of oil, mined from the tar sands, needs two to 4.5 cubic metres of water.

The Athabasca River runs 1,231 kilometres from the Athabasca Glacier in west-central Alberta to Lake Athabasca in northeastern Alberta . The average annual flow just downstream of Fort McMurray is 633 cubic metres per second with its highest daily average measuring 1,200 cubic metres per second.

Water license allocations total about 1% of the Athabasca river average annual flow. Actual use in 2006 was about 0.4%. In addition, the Alberta government sets strict limits on how much water oil sands companies can remove from the Athabasca River. According to the Water Management Framework for the Lower Athabasca River, during periods of low river flow water consumption from the Athabasca River is limited to 1.3% of annual average flow. The province of Alberta is also looking into cooperative withdrawal agreements between oil sands operators.

Natural gas use and greenhouse gases

The processing of bitumen into synthetic crude requires energy, and currently this energy is generated by burning natural gas, which releases carbon dioxide. In 2007, the oil sands used around 1 billion cubic feet of natural gas per day, around 40% of Alberta’s total usage. Based on gas purchases, natural gas requirements are given by the Canadian Energy Resource Institute as 2.14 GJ (2.04 mcf) per barrel for cyclic steam stimulation projects, 1.08 GJ (1.03 mcf) per barrel for SAGD projects, 0.55 GJ (0.52 mcf) per barrel for bitumen extraction in mining operations not including upgrading or 1.54 GJ (1.47 mcf) per barrel for extraction and upgrading in mining operations.

The forecast growth in synthetic oil production in Alberta also threatens Canada’s international commitments. In ratifying the Kyoto Protocol, Canada agreed to reduce, by 2012, its greenhouse gas emissions by 6% with respect to 1990. In 2002, Canada’s total greenhouse gas emissions had increased by 24% since 1990. Oil Sands production contributed 3.4% of Canada’s greenhouse gas emissions in 2003.

Ranked as the world’s eighth largest emitter of greenhouse gases, Canada is a relatively large emitter given its population and is missing its Kyoto targets. A major Canadian initiative called the Integrated CO2 Network (ICO2N) has proposed a system for the large scale capture, transport and storage of carbon dioxide (CO2). ICO2N members represent a group of industry participants providing a framework for carbon capture and storage development in Canada, initially using it to enhance oil recovery. Nuclear power has also been proposed as a means of generating the required energy without releasing green house gases.

Population

The Athabasca oil sands are located in the northeastern portion of the Canadian province of Alberta, near the city of Fort McMurray. The area is only sparsely populated, and in the late 1950s, it was primarily a wilderness outpost of a few hundred people whose main economic activities included fur trapping and salt mining. From a population of 37,222 in 1996, the boomtown of Fort McMurray and the surrounding region (known as the Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo) grew to 79,810 people as of 2006, including a “shadow population” of 10,442 living in work camps, leaving the community struggling to provide services and housing for migrant workers, many of them from Eastern Canada, especially Newfoundland. Fort McMurray ceased to be an incorporated city in 1995 and is now an urban service area within Wood Buffalo.

Estimated oil reserves

The Alberta government’s Energy and Utilities Board (EUB) estimated in 2007 that about 173 billion barrels (27.510^9 m3) of crude bitumen are economically recoverable from the three Alberta oil sands areas based on benchmark WTI market prices of per barrel in 2006, rising to a projected per barrel in 2016 using current technology. This was equivalent to about 10% of the estimated 1,700 billion barrels (27010^9 m3) of bitumen-in-place. In fact WTI prices topped 3 in May 2008. Alberta estimated that the Athabasca deposits alone contain 35 billion barrels (5.610^9 m3) of surface mineable bitumen and 98 billion barrels (15.610^9 m3) of bitumen recoverable by in-situ methods. These estimates of Canada’s reserves were doubted when they were first published but are now largely accepted by the international oil industry. This volume placed Canadian proven reserves second in the world behind those of Saudi Arabia.

Syncrude’s Mildred Lake mine site and plant

The method of calculating economically recoverable reserves that produced these estimates was adopted because conventional methods of accounting for reserves gave increasingly meaningless numbers. They made it appear that Alberta was running out of oil at a time when rapid increases in oil sands production were more than offsetting declines in conventional oil, and in fact most of Alberta’s oil production is now unconventional oil. Conventional estimates of oil reserves are really calculations of the geological risk of drilling for oil, but in the oil sands there is very little geological risk because they outcrop on the surface and are easy to locate. With the oil price increases since 2003, the economic risk of low oil prices was reduced.

The Alberta estimates only assume a recovery rate of around 20% of bitumen-in-place, whereas oil companies using the steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) method of extracting bitumen report that they can recover over 60% with little effort.

Only 3% of the initial established crude bitumen reserves have been produced since commercial production started in 1967. At rate of production projected for 2015, about 3 million barrels per day (48010^3 m3/d), the Athabasca oil sands reserves would last over 170 years. However those production levels require an influx of workers into an area that until recently was largely uninhabited. By 2007 this need in northern Alberta drove unemployment rates in Alberta and adjacent British Columbia to the lowest levels in history. As far away as the Atlantic Provinces, where workers were leaving to work in Alberta, unemployment rates fell to levels not seen for over one hundred years.

The Venezuelan Orinoco Oil Sands site may contain more oil sands than Athabasca. However, while the Orinoco deposits are less viscous and more easily produced using conventional techniques (the Venezuelan government prefers to call them “extra-heavy oil”), they are too deep to access by surface mining.

Economics

Despite the large reserves, the cost of extracting the oil from bituminous sands has historically made production of the oil sands unprofitablehe cost of selling the extracted crude would not cover the direct costs of recovery; labour to mine the sands and fuel to extract the crude.

Oil prices 1996-2008 (not adjusted for inflation)

In mid-2006, the National Energy Board of Canada estimated the operating cost of a new mining operation in the Athabasca oil sands to be C to C per barrel, while the cost of an in-situ SAGD operation (using dual horizontal wells) would be C to C per barrel. This compares to operating costs for conventional oil wells which can range from less than one dollar per barrel in Iraq and Saudi Arabia to over six in the United States and Canada’s conventional oil reserves.

The capital cost of the equipment required to mine the sands and haul it to processing is a major consideration in starting production. The NEB estimates that capital costs raise the total cost of production to C to C per barrel for a new mining operation and C to C per barrel for a SAGD operation. This does not include the cost of upgrading the crude bitumen to synthetic crude oil, which makes the final costs C to C per barrel for a new mining operation.

Therefore, although high crude prices make the cost of production very attractive, sudden drops in price leaves producers unable to recover their capital costslthough the companies are well financed and can tolerate long periods of low prices since the capital has already been spent and they can typically cover incremental operating costs.

However, the development of commercial production is made easier by the fact that exploration costs are very low. Such costs are a major factor when assessing the economics of drilling in a traditional oil field. The location of the oil deposits in the oil sands are well known, and an estimate of recovery costs can usually be made easily. There is not another region in the world with energy deposits of comparable magnitude where it would be less likely that the installations would be confiscated by a hostile national government, or be endangered by a war or revolution.

As a result of the oil price increases since 2003, the economics of oil sands have improved dramatically. At a world price of US per barrel, the NEB estimated an integrated mining operation would make a rate return of 16 to 23%, while a SAGD operation would return 16 to 27%. Prices since 2006 have risen, exceeding US5 in mid 2008. As a result, capital expenditures in the oil sands announced for the period 2006 to 2015 are expected to exceed C0 billion, which is twice the amount projected as recently as 2004. However, because of an acute labour shortage which has developed in Alberta, it is not likely that all these projects can be completed.

At present the area around Fort McMurray has seen the most effect from the increased activity in the oil sands. Although jobs are plentiful, housing is in short supply and expensive. People seeking work often arrive in the area without arranging accommodation, driving up the price of temporary accommodation. The area is isolated, with only a two-lane road connecting it to the rest of the province, and there is pressure on the government of Alberta to improve road links as well as hospitals and other infrastructure.

Despite the best efforts of companies to move as much of the construction work as possible out of the Fort McMurray area, and even out of Alberta, the shortage of skilled workers is spreading to the rest of the province.. Even without the oil sands, the Alberta economy would be very strong, but development of the oil sands has resulted in the strongest period of economic growth ever recorded by a Canadian province.

Geopolitical importance

The Athabasca Oil Sands are now featured prominently in international trade talks, with energy rivals China and the United States negotiating with Canada for a bigger share of the oil sands’ rapidly increasing output. Output at the oil sands is expected to quadruple between 2005 and 2015, reaching 4 million bbl/day, increasing their political and economic importance. Currently most of the oil sands production is exported to the United States.

An agreement has been signed between PetroChina and Enbridge to build a 400,000 barrels per day (64,000 m3/d) pipeline from Edmonton, Alberta, to the west coast port of Kitimat, British Columbia, to export synthetic crude oil from the oil sands to China and elsewhere in the Pacific, plus a 150-million-barrel-per-day (24,000,000 m3/d) pipeline running the other way to import condensate to dilute the bitumen so it will flow. Sinopec, China’s largest refining and chemical company, and China National Petroleum Corporation have bought or are planning to buy shares in major oil sands development.

On August 20, 2009, the U.S. State Department issued a presidential permit for an Alberta Clipper Pipeline that will run from Hardisty, Alberta to Superior, Wisconsin. The pipeline will be capable of carrying up to 450,000 barrels of crude oil a day from the Athabasca Oil Sands to U.S. refineries.

Indigenous peoples of the area

Indigenous peoples of the area include the Fort McKay First Nation. The oil sands themselves are located within the boundaries of Treaty 8, signed in 1899. The Fort McKay First Nation has formed several companies to service the oil sands industry and will be developing a mine on their territory. Opposition remaining within the First Nation focuses on environmental stewardship issues.

Oil sand companies

Planned mining operation oil production by various companies. Data from table below.

There are currently three large oil sands mining operations in the area run by Syncrude Canada Limited, Suncor Energy and Albian Sands owned by Shell Canada, Chevron, and Marathon Oil Corp.

Major producing or planned developments in the Athabasca Oil Sands include the following projects:

Suncor Energy’s Steepbank and Millennium mines currently produce 263,000 barrels per day (41,800 m3/d) and its Firebag in-situ project produces 35,000 bbl/d (5,600 m3/d). It intends to spend 3.2 billion to expand its mining operations to 400,000 bbl/d (64,000 m3/d) and its in-situ production to 140,000 bbl/d (22,000 m3/d) by 2008.

Syncrude’s Mildred Lake and Aurora mines currently can produce 360,000 bbl/d (57,000 m3/d).

Shell Canada currently operates its Muskeg River Mine producing 155,000 bbl/d (24,600 m3/d) and the Scotford Upgrader at Fort Saskatchewan, Alberta. Shell intends to open its new Jackpine mine and expand total production to 500,000 bbl/d (79,000 m3/d) over the next few years.

Nexen’s in-situ Long Lake SAGD project is now producing 70,000 bbl/d (11,000 m3/d). Plans to expand it to 240,000 bbl/d (38,000 m3/d) have been made. Expansion plans were delayed in early 2009.

CNRL’s billion Horizon mine is planned to produce 110,000 bbl/d (17,000 m3/d) on startup in mid 2009 and grow to 300,000 bbl/d (48,000 m3/d) by 2010.

Total S.A.’s subsidiary Deer Creek Energy is operating a SAGD project on its Joslyn lease, producing 10,000 bbl/d (1,600 m3/d). It intends on constructing its mine by 2010 to expand its production by 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d).

Imperial Oil’s 5 to 8 billion Kearl Oil Sands Project is projected to start construction in 2008 and produce 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d) by 2010. Imperial also operates a 160,000 bbl/d (25,000 m3/d) in-situ operation in the Cold Lake oil sands region.

Synenco Energy and SinoCanada Petroleum Corp., a subsidiary of Sinopec, China’s largest oil refiner, had agreed to create the 3.5 billion Northern Lights mine, projected to produce 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d) by 2009. This project has since been indefinitely deferred (as of 2007).

North American Oil Sands Corporation (NAOSC), a subsidiary of Statoil, is expected to produce in the Kai Kos Dehseh project around 100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d) by 2015. It is expected to ramp up production to around 100,000 barrels per day (16,000 m3/d) by around 2015.

Mining Projects

Operator

Project

Phase

Capacity

Start-up

Regulatory Status

Royal Dutch Shell

Jackpine

1A

100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)

2010

Under construction

 

1B

100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)

2012

Approved

 

2

100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)

2014

Applied for

Muskeg River

Existing

155,000 bbl/d (24,600 m3/d)

2002

Operating

 

Expansion

115,000 bbl/d (18,300 m3/d)

2010

Approved

Pierre River

1

100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)

2018

Applied for

 

2

100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)

2021

Applied for

Canadian Natural Resources

Horizon

1

135,000 bbl/d (21,500 m3/d)

2009

Operating

 

2 and 3

135,000 bbl/d (21,500 m3/d)

2011

Approved

 

4

145,000 bbl/d (23,100 m3/d)

2015

Announced

 

5

162,000 bbl/d (25,800 m3/d)

2017

Announced

Imperial Oil

Kearl

1

100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)

2010

Approved

 

2

100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)

2012

Approved

 

3

100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)

2018

Approved

Petro Canada

Fort Hills

1

165,000 bbl/d (26,200 m3/d)

2011

Approved

 

debottleneck

25,000 bbl/d (4,000 m3/d)

TBD

Approved

Suncor Energy

Millenium

 

294,000 bbl/d (46,700 m3/d)

1967

Operating

 

debottleneck

23,000 bbl/d (3,700 m3/d)

2008

Under construction

Steepbank

debottleneck

4,000 bbl/d (640 m3/d)

2007

Under construction

 

extension

 

2010

Approved

Voyageur South

1

120,000 bbl/d (19,000 m3/d)

2012

Applied for

Syncrude

Mildred Lake & Aurora

1 and 2

290,700 bbl/d (46,220 m3/d)

1978

Operating

 

3 Expansion

116,300 bbl/d (18,490 m3/d)

2006

Operating

 

3 Debottleneck

46,500 bbl/d (7,390 m3/d)

2011

Announced

 

4 Expansion

139,500 bbl/d (22,180 m3/d)

2015

Announced

Synenco Energy

Northern Lights

1

57,250 bbl/d (9,102 m3/d)

2010

Applied for

Total S.A.

Joslyn

1

50,000 bbl/d (7,900 m3/d)

2013

Applied for

 

2

50,000 bbl/d (7,900 m3/d)

2016

Applied for

 

3

50,000 bbl/d (7,900 m3/d)

2019

Announced

 

4

50,000 bbl/d (7,900 m3/d)

2022

Announced

UTS/Teck Cominco

Equinox

Lease 14

50,000 bbl/d (7,900 m3/d)

2014

Public disclosure

Frontier

1

100,000 bbl/d (16,000 m3/d)

2014

Public disclosure

Royal Dutch Shell – misleading advertisement

In August 2008 the British Advertising Standards Authority (ASA) ruled that Royal Dutch Shell had misled the public by claiming that its oil sands project in Alberta was a “sustainable energy source”. Although widely used, “sustainable” had been deemed a “vague” and “ambiguous” term, in light of DEFRA’s advice that companies should avoid vague environmentally-friendly terms intended to simply give a good impression. They concluded the claim of sustainability was misleading “[b]ecause we had not seen data that showed how Shell was effectively managing carbon emissions from its oil sands projects in order to limit climate change”.

See also

Canadian Centre for Energy Information

History of the petroleum industry in Canada (oil sands and heavy oil)

Mackenzie Valley Pipeline

Utah Oil Sands Joint Venture

References

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^ a b Andy Burrowes; Rick Marsh, Nehru Ramdin, Curtis Evans (2007) (PDF). Alberta’s Energy Reserves 2006 and Supply/Demand Outlook 2007-2016. ST98. Alberta Energy and Utilities Board. http://www.ercb.ca/docs/products/STs/st98_current.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-12. 

^ “Alberta’s Oil Sands 2006” (PDF). Government of Alberta. 2007. http://www.energy.gov.ab.ca/OilSands/pdfs/osgenbrf.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 

^ Mackenzie, Sir Alexander (1970). “The Journals and Letters of Alexander Mackenzie”. Edited by W. Kaye Lamb. Cambridge: Hakluyt Society, pg. 129, ISBN 0521010349

^ a b Hein, Francis J (2000). “Historical Overview of the Fort McMurray Area and Oil Sands Industry in Northeast Alberta” (PDF). Earth Sciences Report 2000-05. Alberta Geological Survey. http://www.ags.gov.ab.ca/publications/ESR/PDF/ESR_2000_05.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 

^ “Oil Sands History”. Unlocking the Potential of the Oil Sands. Syncrude. 2006. http://www.syncrude.ca/users/folder.asp?FolderID=5657. Retrieved 2008-02-17. 

^ “Oil Sands”. Alberta Energy. Alberta Government. 2008. http://www.energy.gov.ab.ca/OurBusiness/oilsands.asp. Retrieved 2008-01-30. 

^ “Oil sands & western Canadian conventional production, December 2008 interim update”. Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. 2008-12-11. http://www.capp.ca/. Retrieved 2009-01-03. 

^ Franklin, Sonja; Gismatullin, Eduard (2007-12-05). “BP, Husky Energy agree to form oil-sands partnerships”. Bloomberg. http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601082&sid=a18oTMnaz4zQ&refer=canada. Retrieved 2007-12-12. 

^ Dutta, Ashok (2007-12-12). “ConocoPhillips aims high”. Calgary Herald. http://www.canada.com/calgaryherald/news/calgarybusiness/story.html?id=b9f4f1b4-d404-4d23-bfd9-394d1703e3f5&k=84901. Retrieved 2007-12-12. 

^ Alberta, Employment, Immigration and Industry (December 2007). “Alberta Oil Sands Industry Update” (PDF). Government of Alberta. http://www.alberta-canada.com/energyCommodities/files/pdf/oilSandsUpdate_December_2007.pdf. Retrieved 2008-04-01. 

^ Albian Sands Announces Operator Agreement News Release, November 18, 2008

^ Fort Hills Project page – Petro-Canada website

^ Encana website on Oilsands projects

^ a b ConocoPhillips – Canadian operations

^ Jacos homepage

^ Opti sells 15 per cent stake of oilsands joint venture to Nexen for 5 million Yahoo Finance, Dec 17, 2008

^ Nexen Clinches Additional Long Lake Interest for 5MM – RigZone, Jan 27, 2008

^ Horizon project homepage

^ Devon Energy Obtains approval for Second Jackfish Oil Sands Production Project – Oilvoice.com, September 08, 2008

^ Synenco & Sinopec Enter Deal for Canadian Oil Sands Project RigZone – May 31, 2005

^ Synenco page regarding SinoCanada

^ [http://www.total-ep-canada.com/press/documents/2008-04-28-Synenco.pdf Agreement to Buy Synenco Energy Inc. – Total strengthens position in Canadian Heavy Oil] – Total E&P Canada News Release, April 28, 2008

^ Kearl proposed project site – Imperialoil.ca

^ a b BP Enters Canadian Oil Sands with Husky Energy – BP press release,December 5, 2007

^ Tucker project site

^ Chevron finishes Ells river drilling – Heavyoilinfo.com (by Schlumberger), March 30, 2007

^ Terre de Grace project page – Value Creation Inc website

^ Heavy Investment – Statoil arrives in the oil sands – WoodMackenzie, Upstream Insight, May 2007

^ S. Korea Buys Canadian Oil Sands Property – redorbit.com, July 24, 2006

^ “Operational excellence: the land we borrow”. http://www.syncrude.ca/users/getdownload.asp?DownloadID=311. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 

^ “Alberta Inventors and Inventionsarl Clark”. http://www.abheritage.ca/abinvents/inventors/karlclark_biography.htm. Retrieved 2006-03-29. 

^ Gu G, Xu Z, Nandakumar K, Masliyah JH. (2002) “Influence of water-soluble and water-insoluble natural surface active components on the stability of water-in-toluene-diluted bitumen emulsion”, Fuel, 81, pages 18591869.

^ R. J. Mikula, O. Omotoso and W. I. Friesen (2007) “Interpretation of Bitumen Recovery Data from Batch Extraction Tests”, Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering, v 85 n 5, pages 765-772.

^ “Canada Energy Future: Reference Case and Scenarios to 2030” Pages 45-48 ISBN 978-0-662-46855-4

^ “Questions and Answers”. Canada’s Oil Sandspportunities and Challenges to 2015: An Update. National Energy Board of Canada. 2007-06-30. http://www.neb.gc.ca/clf-nsi/rnrgynfmtn/nrgyrprt/lsnd/pprtntsndchllngs20152006/qapprtntsndchllngs20152006-eng.html. Retrieved 2007-08-23. 

^ Long Lake Project

^ “Operationsthabasca Oil Sandsong Lake Projectroject Overview”. Nexen Inc.. http://www.nexeninc.com/Operations/Athabasca_Oil_Sands/Long_Lake/project_overview.asp. Retrieved 2006-03-29. 

^ “Nexen Nods Positive Reservoir Performance at Long Lake” Nexen, 17 July 2008

^ “Alberta Plan Fails to Protect Athabasca River”. http://www.oilsandswatch.org/media-release.php?id=1182. 

^ “Alberta’s tar sands are soaking up too much water”. The Globe and Mail (Dogwood Initiative). 2006-07-05. http://www.dogwoodinitiative.org/newsstories/oilandwaterdonotmix. 

^ “‘Conspiracy of silence’ on tarsands, group says”. CTV News. http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20080215/tarsands_enviroreport_080215/20080215?hub=SciTech. Retrieved 2008-02-16. 

^ “Tar won’t stick”. Edmonton Journal. http://www.canada.com/edmontonjournal/news/opinion/story.html?id=09dd2691-c993-44a3-a254-26619a230a80. Retrieved 2008-02-16. 

^ “Time for Ottawa to stop tiptoeing around Alberta oilsands sensibilities”. Oil Week. 2008-02-15. http://www.oilweek.com/news.asp?ID=14357. Retrieved 2008-02-16.  (industry publication)

^ “Environmental Protection and Enhancement”. Alberta Environment. http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/protenf/landrec/definitions.html#equiv_land_capability. 

^ “Syncrude Land Reclamation”. Syncrude Canada. 2006. http://www.syncrude.ca/users/folder.asp?FolderID=5909. Retrieved 2009-08-07. 

^ “Troubled Waters, Troubling Trends”. The Pembina Institute. May 2006. http://pubs.pembina.org/reports/TroubledW_Full.pdf.  (advocacy)

^ “Primer”. Environment Canada. http://www.ec.gc.ca/water/images/info/pubs/primer/prim08-e.htm. 

^ “Athabasca river water management framework”. http://www.environment.alberta.ca/1547.html. 

^ “Typical River Flows”. Environment Canada. http://www.ec.gc.ca/water/images/nature/prop/a2f5e.htm. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 

^ “Environmental Aspects of Oil Sands Development-Backgrounder” (PDF). Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. http://www.capp.ca/raw.asp?x=1&dt=PDF&dn=105401. Retrieved 2008-12-13. 

^ “Athabasca River Water Management Framework”. Alberta Environment. http://www3.gov.ab.ca/env/water/Management/Athabasca_RWMF/index.html. 

^ “Enhancing Resilience in a Changing Climate, Water Supply for Canada’s Oil Sands”. Natural Resources Canada. http://ess.nrcan.gc.ca/ercc-rrcc/theme1/t7_e.php?p=1. 

^ McColl, David; Slagorsky, Martin (November 2008). Canadian Oil Sands Supply Costs and Development Projects. Canadian Energy Research Institute. ISBN 1896091830. 

^ “Section 2 Crude Bitumen” Alberta Energy Resources Board Graphs and Data (Powerpoint file)

^ Top 50 countries by greenhouse gas emissions Reuters

^ “Carbon Capture and Storage” 30 November 2007.

^ Planning and Development Department (2006). “Municipal Census 2006” (PDF). Regional Municipality of Wood Buffalo. http://www.woodbuffalo.ab.ca/business/demographics/pdf/2006_census.pdf. Retrieved 2008-02-06. 

^ “Urban Service Areas”. Unincorporated Places. Alberta Population. 2008. http://www.altapop.ca/unincorp.htm. Retrieved 2008-02-06. 

^ Department of Energy, Alberta (June 2006). “Oil Sands Fact Sheets”. http://www.energy.gov.ab.ca/oilsands/954.asp. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 

^ Canada, Statistics (April 5, 2007). “Latest release from the labour force survey”. http://www.statcan.ca/english/Subjects/Labour/LFS/lfs-en.htm. Retrieved 2007-04-11. 

^ a b NEB (June 2006) (PDF). Canada’s Oil Sands Opportunities and Challenges to 2015: An Update. National Energy Board of Canada. http://www.neb-one.gc.ca/clf-nsi/rnrgynfmtn/nrgyrprt/lsnd/pprtntsndchllngs20152006/pprtntsndchllngs20152006-eng.pdf. Retrieved 2006-10-30. 

^ Nikiforuk, Andrew (2006-06-04). “The downside of boom: Alberta’s manpower shortage”. Canadian Business magazine. http://www.canadianbusiness.com/managing/employees/article.jsp?content=20060522_77876_77876. Retrieved 2006-10-30. 

^ Statistics Canada (2006-09-14). Study: The Alberta economic juggernaut. Statistics Canada. http://www.statcan.ca/Daily/English/060914/d060914c.htm. Retrieved 2006-10-30. 

^ Enbridge and PetroChina Sign Gateway Pipeline Cooperation Agreement | Business Wire | Find Articles at BNET

^ http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2009/aug/128164.htm

^ http://albertaclipper.state.gov/clientsite/clipper.nsf?Open

^ Financial Post Articleboriginal implication in the project

^ Oil Sands Projects Oilsands Discovery

^ Synenco conference transcript

^ Wojciech Moskwa (2007-04-27). “Statoil to buy North American Oil Sands for 2 bln”. Financial Post. http://www.financialpost.com/story.html?id=fc2c62db-792e-44e9-9819-3480d41ddcbf&k=99838&p=1. Retrieved 2007-12-09. 

^ Shell rapped by ASA for ‘greenwash’ advert – guardian.co.uk, August 13, 2008

External links

Alberta Oil Sands: Key Issues and Impacts

OnEarth Magazine  Canada’s Highway to Hell

Mud, Sweat and Tearsuardian Newspaper, 2007

Hugh McCullum, Fuelling Fortress America: A Report on the Athabasca Tar Sands and U.S. Demands for Canada’s Energy (The Parkland Institute)xecutive SummaryDownload report

Oil Sands Historyyncrude Canada

Oil Sands Discovery Centreort McMurray Tourism

The Trillion-Barrel Tar Pitrticle from December 2004 Wired.

Oil Sands Reviewister publication to Oilweek Magazine

Alberta’s Oil Sandslberta Department of Energy

Alberta’s Reserves 2005 and Supply/Demand Outlook 2006-2015lberta Energy and Utilities Board 2006-06-15

Canada’s Oil Sandspportunities and Challenges to 2015: An Updateune 2006ational Energy Board of Canada

Oilsands overview- Canadian Centre for Energy Information

Alberta Plan Fails to Protect Athabasca River

Megaprojects

“Energy Statistics Handbook” (February 2008) Statistics Canada ISSN 1496-4600

Alastair Sweeny, History of the Oilsands to 1914

(French) Du sable dans l’engrenage tv document by Guy Gendron and Jean-Luc Paquette describing the Athabasca oil sands issues.

Further reading

Kunzig, Robert (March 2009). “The Canadian Oil Boom: Scraping Bottom”. National Geographic 215 (3): 3859. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2009/03/canadian-oil-sands/kunzig-text. Retrieved 29 May 2009. 

v  d  e

Western Canadian Sedimentary Basin

Hydrocarbon history

Oil sands and heavy oil  Frontier exploration and development  Natural gas liquids  Natural gas

Depositional Regions

Southern Alberta  Central Alberta  Northwestern Alberta Plains  South-central Canadian Rockies foothills  North-east Plains  North-central foothills  Liard River  Fort Nelson  Northern Rocky Mountains  Fort St. John  Saskatchewan  Western Manitoba

Oil and gas fields

Athabasca  Greater Sierra  Hamburg  Leduc  Pembina  Wabasca

Categories: Athabasca Oil Sands | Oil fields of Alberta | Bituminous sands of Canada | History of the petroleum industry | Petroleum production in Canada | Economic history of Canada | Oil companies of Canada | History of Alberta | Economy of Canada | Planned or proposed energy projectsHidden categories: All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from March 2009

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