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FEB 12, 2010 MANIFESTO FOR A MASSIVE SHIPPING CONTAINERS DONATION FROM AROUND THE WORLD TO HAITI TO PROVIDE EMERGENCY SHELTER By: Arch. Richard Moreta Castillo HAITI IS IN DIRECT NEED OF A CLEAR PLAN FOR IMMEDIATE RELIEF AND LONG-TERM PLANNING. The recent catastrophe provides the opportunity to offer desperately-needed solutions to develop master-planning, as opposed to providing sporadic aid. In the cities affected by the January 12th earthquake, everything needs to be demolished and rebuilt to comply with international safety standards. If Haiti does not receive this help, it risks becoming an entirely failed state. Haitians need a complete rebuilding of their entire infrastructure, they need a security framework, and they need financial and business structures to be developed in a collaborative way with them so that they are able to regain their basic rights as human beings. The most serious immediate concern is two-fold: to proactively plan for heavy risks of flooding once the rainy season starts, while also anticipating upcoming hurricanes. The larger issue in reconstruction efforts is also to analyze the type of construction method most appropriate to disaster relief, speediness of operation as well as seismic code compliance to minimize future risks. Green Container International Aid (GCIA) designed a series of viable and cost-effective solutions, in close consultation with the local population. We request that the international community and governments mobilize
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Cover Crop

Soil fertility management

Main article: Green manure

One of the primary uses of cover crops is to increase soil fertility. These types of cover crops are referred to as “green manure.” They are used to manage a range of soil macronutrients and micronutrients. Of the various nutrients, the impact that cover crops have on nitrogen management has received the most attention from researchers and farmers, because nitrogen is often the most limiting nutrient in crop production.

Often, green manure crops are grown for a specific period, and then plowed under before reaching full maturity in order to improve soil fertility and quality.

Green manure crops are commonly leguminous, meaning they are part of the Fabaceae (pea) family. This family is unique in that all of the species in it set pods, such as bean, lentil, lupins and alfalfa. Leguminous cover crops are typically high in nitrogen and can often provide the required quantity of nitrogen for crop production. Normally, this nitrogen would be applied in chemical fertilizer form. This quality of cover crops is called fertilizer replacement value (Thiessen-Martens et al. 2005).

Another quality unique to leguminous cover crops is that they form symbiotic relationships with the rhizobial bacteria that reside in legume root nodules. Lupins is nodulated by the soil microorganism Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus). Bradyrhizobia are encountered as microsymbionts in other leguminous crops (Argyrolobium, Lotus, Ornithopus, Acacia, Lupinus) of Mediterranean origin. These bacteria convert biologically unavailable atmospheric nitrogen gas (N2) to biologically available mineral nitrogen (NH4+) through the process of biological nitrogen fixation.

Prior to the advent of the Haber-Bosch process, an energy-intensive method developed to carry out industrial nitrogen fixation and create chemical nitrogen fertilizer, most nitrogen introduced to ecosystems arose through biological nitrogen fixation (Galloway et al. 1995). Some scientists believe that widespread biological nitrogen fixation, achieved mainly through the use of cover crops, is the only alternative to industrial nitrogen fixation in the effort to maintain or increase future food production levels (Bohlool et al. 1992, Peoples and Craswell 1992, Giller and Cadisch 1995). Industrial nitrogen fixation has been criticized as an unsustainable source of nitrogen for food production due to its reliance on fossil fuel energy and the environmental impacts associated with chemical nitrogen fertilizer use in agriculture (Jensen and Hauggaard-Nielsen 2003). Such widespread environmental impacts include nitrogen fertilizer losses into waterways, which can lead to eutrophication (nutrient loading) and ensuing hypoxia (oxygen depletion) of large bodies of water.

An example of this lies in the Mississippi Valley Basin, where years of fertilizer nitrogen loading into the watershed from agricultural production have resulted in a hypoxic ead zone off the Gulf of Mexico the size of New Jersey (Rabalais et al. 2002). The ecological complexity of marine life in this zone has been diminishing as a consequence (CENR 2000).

As well as bringing nitrogen into agroecosystems through biological nitrogen fixation, types of cover crops known as atch crops are used to retain and recycle soil nitrogen already present. The catch crops take up surplus nitrogen remaining from fertilization of the previous crop, preventing it from being lost through leaching (Morgan et al. 1942), or gaseous denitrification or volatilization (Thorup-Kristensen et al. 2003).

Catch crops are typically fast-growing annual cereal species adapted to scavenge available nitrogen efficiently from the soil (Ditsch and Alley 1991). The nitrogen tied up in catch crop biomass is released back into the soil once the catch crop is incorporated as a green manure or otherwise begins to decompose

An example of green manure use comes from Nigeria, where the cover crop Mucuna pruriens (velvet bean) has been found to increase the availability of phosphorus in soil after a farmer applies rock phosphate (Vanlauwe et al. 2000).

Soil quality management

Cover crops can also improve soil quality by increasing soil organic matter levels through the input of cover crop biomass over time. Increased soil organic matter enhances soil structure, as well as the water and nutrient holding and buffering capacity of soil (Patrick et al. 1957). It can also lead to increased soil carbon sequestration, which has been promoted as a strategy to help offset the rise in atmospheric carbon dioxide levels (Kuo et al. 1997, Sainju et al. 2002, Lal 2003).

Although cover crops can perform multiple functions in an agroecosystem simultaneously, they are often grown for the sole purpose of preventing soil erosion. Soil erosion is a process that can irreparably reduce the productive capacity of an agroecosystem. Dense cover crop stands physically slow down the velocity of rainfall before it contacts the soil surface, preventing soil splashing and erosive surface runoff (Romkens et al. 1990). Additionally, vast cover crop root networks help anchor the soil in place and increase soil porosity, creating suitable habitat networks for soil macrofauna (Tomlin et al. 1995).

Soil quality is managed to produce optimum circumstances for crops to flourish. The principal factors of soil quality are soil salination, pH, microorganism balance and the prevention of soil contamination.

Water management

By reducing soil erosion, cover crops often also reduce both the rate and quantity of water that drains off the field, which would normally pose environmental risks to waterways and ecosystems downstream (Dabney et al. 2001). Cover crop biomass acts as a physical barrier between rainfall and the soil surface, allowing raindrops to steadily trickle down through the soil profile. Also, as stated above, cover crop root growth results in the formation of soil pores, which in addition to enhancing soil macrofauna habitat provides pathways for water to filter through the soil profile rather than draining off the field as surface flow. With increased water infiltration, the potential for soil water storage and the recharging of aquifers can be improved (Joyce et al. 2002).

Just before cover crops are killed (by such practices including mowing, tilling, discing, rolling, or herbicide application) they contain a large amount of moisture. When the cover crop is incorporated into the soil, or left on the soil surface, it often increases soil moisture. In agroecosystems where water for crop production is in short supply, cover crops can be used as a mulch to conserve water by shading and cooling the soil surface. This reduces evaporation of soil moisture. In other situations farmers try to dry the soil out as quickly as possible going into the planting season. Here prolonged soil moisture conservation can be problematic.

While cover crops can help to conserve water, in temperate regions (particularly in years with below average precipitation) they can draw down soil water supply in the spring, particularly if climatic growing conditions are good. In these cases, just before crop planting, farmers often face a tradeoff between the benefits of increased cover crop growth and the drawbacks of reduced soil moisture for cash crop production that season.

Weed management

Thick cover crop stands often compete well with weeds during the cover crop growth period, and can prevent most germinated weed seeds from completing their life cycle and reproducing. If the cover crop is left on the soil surface rather than incorporated into the soil as a green manure after its growth is terminated, it can form a nearly impenetrable mat. This drastically reduces light transmittance to weed seeds, which in many cases reduces weed seed germination rates (Teasdale 1993). Furthermore, even when weed seeds germinate, they often run out of stored energy for growth before building the necessary structural capacity to break through the cover crop mulch layer. This is often termed the cover crop smother effect (Kobayashi et al. 2003).

Some cover crops suppress weeds both during growth and after death (Blackshaw et al. 2001). During growth these cover crops compete vigorously with weeds for available space, light, and nutrients, and after death they smother the next flush of weeds by forming a mulch layer on the soil surface. For example, Blackshaw et al. (2001) found that when using Melilotus officinalis (yellow sweetclover) as a cover crop in an improved fallow system (where a fallow period is intentionally improved by any number of different management practices, including the planting of cover crops), weed biomass only constituted between 1-12% of total standing biomass at the end of the cover crop growing season. Furthermore, after cover crop termination, the yellow sweetclover residues suppressed weeds to levels 75-97% lower than in fallow (no yellow sweetclover) systems .

In addition to competition-based or physical weed suppression, certain cover crops are known to suppress weeds through allelopathy (Creamer et al. 1996, Singh et al. 2003). This occurs when certain biochemical cover crop compounds are degraded that happen to be toxic to, or inhibit seed germination of, other plant species. Some well known examples of allelopathic cover crops are Secale cereale (rye), Vicia villosa (hairy vetch), Trifolium pratense (red clover), Sorghum bicolor (sorghum-sudangrass), and species in the brassicaceae family, particularly mustards (Haramoto and Gallandt 2004). In one study, rye cover crop residues were found to have provided between 80% and 95% control of early season broadleaf weeds when used as a mulch during the production of different cash crops such as soybean, tobacco, corn, and sunflower (Nagabhushana et al. 2001).

Disease management

In the same way that allelopathic properties of cover crops can suppress weeds, they can also break disease cycles and reduce populations of bacterial and fungal diseases (Everts 2002), and parasitic nematodes (Potter et al. 1998, Vargas-Ayala et al. 2000). Species in the brassicaceae family, such as mustards, have been widely shown to suppress fungal disease populations through the release of naturally occurring toxic chemicals during the degradation of glucosinolade compounds in their plant cell tissues (Lazzeri and Manici 2001).

Pest management

Some cover crops are used as so-called “trap crops”, to attract pests away from the crop of value and toward what the pest sees as a more favorable habitat (Shelton and Badenes-Perez 2006). Trap crop areas can be established within crops, within farms, or within landscapes. In many cases the trap crop is grown during the same season as the food crop being produced. The limited area occupied by these trap crops can be treated with a pesticide once pests are drawn to the trap in large enough numbers to reduce the pest populations. In some organic systems, farmers drive over the trap crop with a large vacuum-based implement to physically pull the pests off the plants and out of the field (Kuepper and Thomas 2002). This system has been recommended for use to help control the lygus bugs in organic strawberry production (Zalom et al. 2001).

Other cover crops are used to attract natural predators of pests by providing elements of their habitat. This is a form of biological control known as habitat augmentation, but achieved with the use of cover crops (Bugg and Waddington 1994). Findings on the relationship between cover crop presence and predator/pest population dynamics have been mixed, pointing toward the need for detailed information on specific cover crop types and management practices to best complement a given integrated pest management strategy. For example, the predator mite Euseius tularensis (Congdon) is known to help control the pest citrus thrips in Central California citrus orchards. Researchers found that the planting of several different leguminous cover crops (such as bell bean, woollypod vetch, New Zealand white clover, and Austrian winter pea) provided sufficient pollen as a feeding source to cause a seasonal increase in Congdon populations, which with good timing could potentially introduce enough predatory pressure to reduce pest populations of citrus thrips (Grafton-Cardwell et al. 1999).

Diversity and wildlife

Although cover crops are normally used to serve one of the above discussed purposes, they often simultaneously improve farm habitat for wildlife. The use of cover crops adds at least one more dimension of plant diversity to a cash crop rotation. Since the cover crop is typically not a crop of value, its management is usually less intensive, providing a window of oft human influence on the farm. This relatively ands-off management, combined with the increased on-farm heterogeneity created by the establishment of cover crops, increases the likelihood that a more complex trophic structure will develop to support a higher level of wildlife diversity (Freemark and Kirk 2001).

In one study, researchers compared arthropod and songbird species composition and field use between conventionally and cover cropped cotton fields in the Southern United States. The cover cropped cotton fields were planted to clover, which was left to grow in between cotton rows throughout the early cotton growing season (stripcover cropping). During the migration and breeding season, they found that songbird densities were 720 times higher in the cotton fields with integrated clover cover crop than in the conventional cotton fields. Arthropod abundance and biomass was also higher in the clover cover cropped fields throughout much of the songbird breeding season, which was attributed to an increased supply of flower nectar from the clover. The clover cover crop enhanced songbird habitat by providing cover and nesting sites, and an increased food source from higher arthropod populations (Cederbaum et al. 2004).

See also

Agroecology

Allelopathy

Biological control

Green manure

Nitrogen cycle

Nitrogen fixation

Organic matter

Soil contamination

Further reading

Midwest Cover Crops Council. Resources for growers, researchers, and educators.

Hartwig, N. L., and H. U. Ammon. 2002. 50th Anniversary – Invited article – Cover crops and living mulches. Weed Science 50:688-699.

Sullivan, P. 2003. Overview of cover crops and green manures. ATTRA, Fayetteville, AR.

University of California Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education Program. UCSAREP cover crop resource page.

References

Blackshaw, R. E., J. R. Moyer, R. C. Doram, and A. L. Boswell. 2001. Yellow sweetclover, green manure, and its residues effectively suppress weeds during fallow. Weed Science 49:406-413.

Bohlool, B. B., J. K. Ladha, D. P. Garrity, and T. George. 1992. Biological nitrogen fixation for sustainable agriculture: A perspective. Plant and Soil (Historical Archive) 141:1-11.

Bugg, R. L., and C. Waddington. 1994. Using Cover Crops to Manage Arthropod Pests of Orchards – a Review. Agriculture Ecosystems & Environment 50:11-28.

Cederbaum, S. B., J. P. Carroll, and R. J. Cooper. 2004. Effects of alternative cotton agriculture on avian and arthropod populations. Conservation Biology 18:1272-1282.

CENR. 2000. Integrated Assessment of Hypoxia in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. National Science and Technology Council Committee on Environment and Natural Resources, Washington, DC.

Creamer, N. G., M. A. Bennett, B. R. Stinner, J. Cardina, and E. E. Regnier. 1996. Mechanisms of weed suppression in cover crop-based production systems. HortScience 31:410-413.

Dabney, S. M., J. A. Delgado, and D. W. Reeves. 2001. Using winter cover crops to improve soil quality and water quality. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 32:1221-1250.

Ditsch, D. C., and M. M. Alley. 1991. Nonleguminous Cover Crop Management for Residual N Recovery and Subsequent Crop Yields. Journal of Fertilizer Issues 8:6-13.

Everts, K. L. 2002. Reduced fungicide applications and host resistance for managing three diseases in pumpkin grown on a no-till cover crop. Plant dis 86:1134-1141.

Freemark, K. E., and D. A. Kirk. 2001. Birds on organic and conventional farms in Ontario: partitioning effects of habitat and practices on species composition and abundance. Biological Conservation 101:337-350.

Galloway, J. N., W. H. Schlesinger, H. Levy, A. Michaels, and J. L. Schnoor. 1995. Nitrogen-Fixation – Anthropogenic Enhancement-Environmental Response. Global Biogeochemical Cycles 9:235-252.

Giller, K. E., and G. Cadisch. 1995. Future benefits from biological nitrogen fixation: An ecological approach to agriculture. Plant and Soil (Historical Archive) 174:255-277.

Grafton-Cardwell, E. E., Y. L. Ouyang, and R. L. Bugg. 1999. Leguminous cover crops to enhance population development of Euseius tularensis (Acari : Phytoseiidae) in citrus. Biological Control 16:73-80.

Haramoto, E. R., and E. R. Gallandt. 2004. Brassica cover cropping for weed management: A review. Renewable Agriculture and Food Systems 19:187-198.

Jensen, E. S., and H. Hauggaard-Nielsen. 2003. How can increased use of biological N-2 fixation in agriculture benefit the environment? Plant and Soil 252:177-186.

Joyce, B. A., W. W. Wallender, J. P. Mitchell, L. M. Huyck, S. R. Temple, P. N. Brostrom, and T. C. Hsiao. 2002. Infiltration and soil water storage under winter cover cropping in California’s Sacramento Valley. Transactions of the Asae 45:315-326.

Kobayashi, Y., M. Ito, and K. Suwanarak. 2003. Evaluation of smothering effect of four legume covers on Pennisetum polystachion ssp. setosum (Swartz) Brunken. Weed Biology and Management 3:222-227.

Kuepper, G., and R. Thomas. 2002. “Bug vacuums” for organic crop protection. ATTRA, Fayetteville, AR.

Kuo, S., U. M. Sainju, and E. J. Jellum. 1997. Winter cover crop effects on soil organic carbon and carbohydrate in soil. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61:145-152.

Lal, R. 2003. Offsetting global CO2 emissions by restoration of degraded soils and intensification of world agriculture and forestry. Land Degradation & Development 14:309-322.

Lazzeri, L., and L. M. Manici. 2001. Allelopathic effect of glucosinolate-containing plant green manure on Pythium sp and total fungal population in soil. Hortscience 36:1283-1289.

Lu, Y. C., K. B. Watkins, J. R. Teasdale, and A. A. Abdul-Baki. 2000. Cover crops in sustainable food production. Food Reviews International 16:121-157.

Morgan, M. F., H. G. M. Jacobson, and S. B. LeCompte. 1942. Drainage water losses from a sandy soil as affected by cropping and cover crops : Windsor lysimeter series c. Connecticut Agricultural Experiment Station, 1942. p. -759 : ill., [New Haven].

Nagabhushana, G. G., A. D. Worsham, and J. P. Yenish. 2001. Allelopathic cover crops to reduce herbicide use in sustainable agricultural systems. Allelopathy Journal 8:133-146.

New Farm, The. Plans for no-till cover crop roller free for the downloading.

Patrick, W. H., C. B. Haddon, and J. A. Hendrix. 1957. The effects of longtime use of winter cover crops on certain physical properties of commerce loam. Soil Science Society of America 21:366-368.

Peoples, M. B., and E. T. Craswell. 1992. Biological nitrogen fixation: Investments, expectations and actual contributions to agriculture. Plant and Soil (Historical Archive) 141:13-39.

Potter, M. J., K. Davies, and A. J. Rathjen. 1998. Suppressive impact of glucosinolates in Brassica vegetative tissues on root lesion nematode Pratylenchus neglectus. Journal of Chemical Ecology 24:67-80.

Rabalais, N. N., R. E. Turner, and W. J. Wiseman. 2002. Gulf of Mexico hypoxia, aka “The dead zone”. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 33:235-263.

Romkens, M. J. M., S. N. Prasad, and F. D. Whisler. 1990. Surface sealing and infiltration. Pages 127-172 in M. G. Anderson and T. P. Butt, editors. Process studies in hillslope hydrology. John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

Sainju, U. M., B. P. Singh, and W. F. Whitehead. 2002. Long-term effects of tillage, cover crops, and nitrogen fertilization on organic carbon and nitrogen concentrations in sandy loam soils in Georgia, USA. Soil & Tillage Research 63:167-179.

Shelton, A. M., and E. Badenes-Perez. 2006. Concepts and applications of trap cropping in pest management. Annual Review of Entomology 51:285-308.

Singh, H. P., D. R. Batish, and R. K. Kohli. 2003. Allelopathic interactions and allelochemicals: New possibilities for sustainable weed management. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences 22:239-311.

Snapp, S. S., S. M. Swinton, R. Labarta, D. Mutch, J. R. Black, R. Leep, J. Nyiraneza, and K. O’Neil. 2005. Evaluating cover crops for benefits, costs and performance within cropping system niches. Agron. J. 97:1-11.

Teasdale, J. R. 1993. Interaction of light, soil moisture, and temperature with weed suppression by hairy vetch residue. Weed sci 41:46-51.

Thiessen-Martens, J. R., M. H. Entz, and J. W. Hoeppner. 2005. Legume cover crops with winter cereals in southern Manitoba: Fertilizer replacement values for oat. Canadian Journal of Plant Science 85:645-648.

Thomsen, I. K., and B. T. Christensen. 1999. Nitrogen conserving potential of successive ryegrass catch crops in continuous spring barley. Soil Use and Management 15:195-200.

Thorup-Kristensen, K., J. Magid, and L. S. Jensen. 2003. Catch crops and green manures as biological tools in nitrogen management in temperate zones. Pages 227-302 in Advances in Agronomy, Vol 79. ACADEMIC PRESS INC, San Diego.

Tomlin, A. D., M. J. Shipitalo, W. M. Edwards, and R. Protz. 1995. Earthworms and their influence on soil structure and infiltration. Pages 159-183 in P. F. Hendrix, editor. Earthworm Ecology and Biogeography in North America. Lewis Pub., Boca Raton, FL.

Vanlauwe, B., O. C. Nwoke, J. Diels, N. Sanginga, R. J. Carsky, J. Deckers, and R. Merckx. 2000. Utilization of rock phosphate by crops on a representative toposequence in the Northern Guinea savanna zone of Nigeria: response by Mucuna pruriens, Lablab purpureus and maize. Soil Biology & Biochemistry 32:2063-2077.

Vargas-Ayala, R., R. Rodriguez-Kabana, G. Morgan-Jones, J. A. McInroy, and J. W. Kloepper. 2000. Shifts in soil microflora induced by velvetbean (Mucuna deeringiana) in cropping systems to control root-knot nematodes. Biological Control 17:11-22.

Zalom, F. G., P. A. Phillips, N. C. Toscano, and S. Udayagiri. 2001. UC Pest Management Guidelines: Strawberry: Lygus Bug. University of California Department of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Berkeley, CA.

Categories: Crops | Agricultural soil science

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Green growth: the transition to a sustainable economy

Speaker: Chris Huhne MP Chair: Professor Eric Neumayer This event was recorded on 2 November 2010 in Sheikh Zayed Theatre, New Academic Building In this keynote talk Chris Huhne will set out the economic need for low-carbon growth as an essential path out of recession. He will argue that the need to urgently renew and decarbonise our energy supply, and to upgrade our ageing and inefficient buildings, will not just provide an economic boost but also help to create a more balanced, resilient and sustainable British economy. Chris Huhne is Secretary of State for Energy and Climate Change, and the Liberal Democrat Member of Parliament for Eastleigh since 2005.
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Solar Fountains – Best Approach to Build Ecological Backyard Decor

It can make you are feeling great when you can beautify your environment and concurrently be pleasant to nature. Photo voltaic fountains would be the kinds of products that could allow you add elegance and design for your dwelling, lawn or workplace with out damaging results on the all-natural atmosphere along with the ecological technique.

Ecology could be the relationships involving organism and their atmosphere. Putting in photo voltaic fountains is usually an ideal method to create an ecological backyard decor. How?

They decrease carbon emission:

Because it is powered by the sun, there isn’t any need to have of electrical energy provide from your grid. The era of power that we use indoor and outside creates greenhouse gases. Are you able to consider how we are able to aid decrease the dangerous emission if all h2o fountains from the entire world use photo voltaic power?

They pose no electrical hazards:

You’ll need electrical power operating throughout the lawn; or underground cable is critical in case you use the typical fountains. Cables and electrical wires overlaying to the floor are unsafe. This fountain is totally free from all these expenditures and mess; no have to have for plugs and outlets.

Fantastic for that natural environment:

Making use of this fountains tend not to add pollution to the environment. One of many environmental factors that result in illnesses and health and fitness problems is air pollution, wherein distinctive pollutants are current while in the air that we breathe in.

They conserve the healthy atmosphere:

Including a photo voltaic fountain with your lawn can serve as birdbaths. Clear and splashing h2o attracts birds. Birds are often an integral a part of a pure atmosphere. Birds going to your lawn might be additional generally which makes it their organic habitat.

Making use of photo voltaic fountains saves you revenue:

The standard h2o fountains use pumps which eat electrical power from your grid. While you invest in a photo voltaic fountain you conserve in your payments, in particular while you run them continuously about prolonged intervals of time. A photo voltaic fountain merely utilizes energy from your sun. Once the weather conditions will get tough and also the sun won’t exhibit up, it’s time to offer it a relaxation.

You can find many styles and styles of photo voltaic fountains which may make your lawn naturally classy. You will find fantastic animal or human sculptures designed from many stones and bronze.

With straightforward efforts it is possible to aid cut down greenhouse gases, conserve income, possess a healthier lifestyle and most of all possess an attractive and ecological backyard decor.

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More Human Ecology Articles

Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) Relating to the Environmental Management

INTRODUCTION

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) are eight international development goals that all 192 United Nations member states and at least 23 international organizations have agreed to achieve by the year 2015, during the millennium summit in 2001. During the summit it was noted that more than a billion people in the world still in acute poverty and suffer grossly due to inadequate resources and insufficient services such as education and health. The MDGs aim to spur development by improving social and economic conditions in the world poorest countries.

The Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) established a unifying set of developmental objectives for the global community.  Bringing together United Nations agencies, governments and civil society around eight key development issues, the MDGs foster collaborative action to reduce poverty, improve health and address educational and environmental concerns around the world’s most pressing development problems.  The MDGs are specifically designed to address the needs of the world’s poorest citizens and the world’s most marginalized populations.

Environmental management is the field of study which includes the protection, conservation and sustainable use of various elements or components of the environment. Environment includes physical factors of surroundings of human beings including air, land, water, climate sound light, odor taste, micro organisms, biological factors of animals and plants, cultural resources and the socio-economic factors of aesthetics and include both the natural and built environment and the way the interact.

The following are the 8 millennium development goals together with their relevance in the field of environmental management. 

Goal 1: Eradicate extreme poverty and hunger

This has two targets to be achieved by the year 2015

Target 1: Reduce by half the proportion of people living on less than a dollar a day;

Target 2: Reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger;

Poverty is a situation where income levels are too low to meet the basic necessities for survival; here people live below USD 1. Hunger is where there is insufficient supply of food people, lack enough food to eat. Before the establishment of MDGs poverty levels was very high among the people as a result people destroyed the environment in order to earn money to sustain themselves, they engaged in environmentally unfriendly activities such as deforestation so as to obtain fuel woods, building materials, expanding agricultural land and grazing areas, burning charcoal and others, which together destroyed the environment.

The benefits we obtain from ecosystem goods and services underpin the basis for our livelihoods, health and security. Poor people have limited financial resources and are therefore extremely dependent on the environment for their basic needs such as water, food, and shelter. Environmental degradation diminishes the capacity of poor people to make decisions that contribute to their well-being. When environmental resources are not managed in a sustainable manner, their degradation therefore negatively influences the welfare of poor people. Conversely, promoting the sustainable use of resources on which poor people rely – such as forests, water, and soil – will contribute to the eradication of extreme poverty and hunger.

After MDGs countries where ordered to alleviate poverty among their people, this is because poverty contributes a lot to environmental degradation. Several measures where put in place to combat poverty at the same time preserving the environment for present and future use; the establishment of agro forestry, re-afforestation and afforestation programs soil conservation measures, electrification of rural development and creating more employment opportunities, women empowerment, fair trade for agricultural products, rural industrialization, opening money lending institutions such as co-operatives to improve small businesses and education among people to fight ignorance, these together lead to the improvement of living standards of the people at the same time managing our environment example agro forestry a farmer may obtain income through selling timbers, food from crops and animal products at the same time trees control soil erosion, animals improve the soil fertility from their droppings.

 At international level a UN agency named UNEP (United nation Environmental Program) is concerned with environmental issues and poverty among nations. UNEP works in close collaboration with UNDP (United nation Development program) on poverty and environment issues. UNDP and UNEP have formally launched a joint Global Partnership on Poverty and the Environment. Through this partnership, UNDP and UNEP will work together with countries around the world to ensure that good environmental management leads to improved livelihoods for poor people. UNDP and UNEP will, furthermore, monitor programs established to achieve the Millennium Development Goals, and will ensure that investment through those programs is carried out in an environmentally-friendly manner       

The Poverty and Environment Unit of UNEP is currently supporting seven African countries in implementing a four-year project that aims to increase developing countries’ capacity to mainstream environment into poverty reduction policies and other national development strategies. This will ensure that efforts to reduce poverty are not undermined by the unsustainable use of resources. The explicit linking of poverty and environment contributes to the realization of the MDGs, particularly MDG1. Money institutions like IMF (International monetary Fund) and World Bank are now sponsoring developmental projects in various nations aiming at raising the living standard of the people. In Tanzania, the president Hon. Jakaya Kikwete provided 1 billion per each 26 regions of the country to support these development projects of the poor people hence raising the living standards.

Eradication of extreme poverty and hunger helps a lot to preserve and conserve out nature.

 

 

Goal 2: Achieve Universal Primary Education (UPE)

Target 3: To ensure that by 2015 that children everywhere will complete a full course of primary schooling

Before the establishment of MDGs many children (113 million) worldwide did not attend school. This problem was most acute in Sub-Saharan Africa, and a higher proportion of girls than boys were not going to school. This was due to various reasons like poverty, cultural believes and norms, physical barriers, there were no enough primary schools buildings, teaching materials and teachers. This made them to lack knowledge and skills on how to relate with their surrounding, as a result they engage in environmentally unfriendly activities like deforestation, poor farming methods bush burning and hunting, these activities resulted in to scarcity of the resources especially where the environment was under stress, thus children especially girls spend a lot of time gathering fire wood and collecting water. In urban areas ignorance contributed to unsanitary conditions such as poor management of solid and liquid waste.  

After the establishment of MDGs, countries are targeting to ensure that by 2015 children everywhere should complete a full course of primary education, a lot of efforts are being done to ensure the provision of FREE primary education, more schools have and are being built, more teaching materials like books, drawing boards chalks and others are being supplied, more primary education teachers have being employed and more training colleges for teachers have been established. This primary education has helped students to be environmentally knowledgeable hence taking a good care of the environment among their societies where they can introduce environmental programs like soil conservation, afforestation, water management practices and others. Education also makes students to be more creative and innovative hence can create self employment jobs instead of relaying on environment.    

 

Goal 3: Promote Gender Equality and Empower women.

Target 4: Eliminate gender disparities in primary and secondary education, preferably by 2005, and all levels of education no later than 2015

 

Before the establishment of MDGs, women were being undermined at all stages that is to say local, regional, national and international levels in terms of making decisions and owning properties. For example they were not allowed to inherit properties like land, were they would practice activities like afforestation which would reduce land degradation by protecting the soil, they were not allowed to go to school. Most employment opportunities in societies were given to men, this increased women poverty, also early marriages and polygamy caused women to produce many children, which resulted into high demand for food paving way to environmentally unfriendly activities like over cultivation, bush burning, deforestation which poisoned our environment. In earlier societies males were more preferred than females. This made females to be poor hence continued interacting with the natural environment in the long way.

After the MDGs the governments of various countries have elevated the position of women at all levels by encouraging female child education and also giving them financial support from primary to higher education level. This has put women on a fore front in decision making from family; local to international level example nowadays women are now given special seats in parliaments like in Tanzania they want to make sure that 50% of MPs are women laws protecting rights of women have been established through the ministry of women affairs. This goal has also helped to reduce the dependency of women on their husbands as their now empowered in various fields. Promoting gender equality and empowering of women will help in managing our environment because in most cases women are the ones interacting directly with the environment. Like collecting firewood and fetching water. Also women have been instrumental in conserving the environment, for example Waangari Mathai of Kenya won a noble prize for her efforts in the planting of trees from which environmental deterioration can be kept minimal.

 

 UNEP is working towards empowering women to play a more active role in conservation efforts and the sustainable management of natural resources. Our aim is to build capacities to amplify the voices of women calling for equal rights and responsibilities in environmental and sustainable development.

 

Goal 4: Reduce child mortality

.     

Target 5: Reduce under-five mortality rate by two thirds between 1990 and 2015

 

Before the establishment of MDGs, there was a high rate of child mortality resulting from a number of factors which are human factors for example lack of family planning as parents produced more children as an insurance against diseases that were causing death in children ,poor nutrition ,poor sanitation, poor housing, cultural beliefs, social economic factors such as inadequate health facilities like hospitals ,medicines ,medical personnel and poor infrastructures, environmental factors such as disease causing vectors, physical barriers and environmental pollution. All combined together led to the massive death of children aged bellow five years.

 

After the establishment of MDGs, many health facilities have been put in place to reduce on child mortality hence saving the lives of under fives. Many hospitals have and are being built in every place of the country, many doctors and other health personnel have been employed health centers , medicines are in plenty supply, immunization programes are now being provided to children example in Uganda children below five years are immunized two times against polio, provision of free mosquito nets to women having children below fives to protect them against malaria example in Tanzania and Kenya, nowadays there is  provisions of vitamin A and C to children under five. Environmental health education is now being provided to the people like how to destroy the breeding places of vectors such as mosquitoes, good sanitation services like use of proper latrines, proper management of wastes and others of the same nature. Improvements in environmental factors play a lot in reducing child mortality in our countries.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Goal 5: Improve maternal health

 

 Target 6: Reduce the maternity mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015;

 

Before the establishment of MDGs there was high rate of maternal mortality caused by health factors, socio-economic factors, environmental factors and others, example inhaling polluted indoor air and carrying heavy loads of water and fuel wood hurt women’s health and can make them less fit to bear children, with greater risks of complications during pregnancy. And lack of energy for illumination and refrigeration, as well as inadequate sanitation, undermine health care, especially in rural areas. Social cultural factors like polygamous marriages, early marriages, female genital mutilation, inheritance of widows and food forbiddance undermine the health of pregnant women causing complications during delivery adding to maternal mortality.

 

After the establishment of MDGs, countries are working hard through their health ministries to improve the maternal health; various initiatives have been put in place to save the lives of pregnant mothers. Nowadays many health centre have been built up to the village levels, many doctors and midwives are put in place to help the pregnant women, pregnant women are now attending clinics for antenatal and postnatal check ups of their health and that of unborn children. Infrastructures example roads have now been improved for easy accessibility to health centers. Environmental health education is now being provided to societies like provision of clean water, proper sanitation and pollution control measures to reduce related effects such as water borne diseases and respiratory infections like diarrhea, cholera, pneumonia, anemia and others, this is because when the environment is polluted pregnant women suffers a lot from diseases.

 

 

 

 

Goal 6: Combating HIV/AIDS Malaria and other diseases.

 

Target 7: Halt by 2015 and begin to reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS;

 

Initially the death rate of people due to HIV, malaria and other diseases were very high due to socio economic factors and environmental factors like poverty, medical heath facilities, and lack of HIV/AIDS education, pollutions from industries, poor waste and sewage management.

Of late media programs publications and seminars all could help sensitize the masses about the danger of diseases and how they could be prevented.

 

This goal is targeted by 2015 HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases to be combated and reversed their spread. This can be achieved by reducing a prevalence of these diseases, through introduction of condoms, sex education, provision of mosquito nets, anti-malaria treatments, scrubbers and electrostatic precipitators, proper management of water resources, environmental health education, and educational programs about diseases and environment by the media (eco talk show) and religious programs. These diseases make people sick and weak thus all of their income will be invested on buying medicines and treatments. They also cause death of people thus leaving behind widows and orphans unattended, as a result victims engage into environmental unfriendly activities like deforestation for charcoal burning, fire wood so that they can earn income. These all combined together accelerate environmental degradation.   

 

 

Goal 7: Ensure environmental sustainability 

Target 9: Integrate the principles of sustainable development into country policies and programmes; reverse loss of environmental resources;

Target 10: Reduce by half the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water;

Target 11: Achieve significant improvement in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers by 2020;

The existence of an environmental MDG in itself is an explicit recognition by world leaders that environment is a crucial element of development. It is recognition of the fact that without environmental sustainability there will be no long-lasting development. MDG7 and the underlying targets also show commitment at the highest political level to ensuring environmental sustainability.

However, environment is of importance not only for MDG7 but also for the other MDGs. The President’s Summary of the discussion of Ministers and Heads of Delegation at the 23rd Session of the Governing Council of UNEP concluded: “If they (the MDGs) are to be achieved in a sustainable manner, recognition that environmental sustainability underpins the achievement of all the goals must be at the heart of further efforts of the international community.”

MDG7 is of direct relevance to most of the work that is being undertaken by UNEP under the organization’s slogan ‘Environment for Development’.

UNEP works in co-operation with like-minded partners. One example of this is the Poverty and Environment Partnership (PEP), an informal network of development agencies that seeks to improve the coordination of work on poverty reduction and the environment. Together, we have developed an initiative that seeks to reinvigorate political attention to the environmental challenges that are central to achieving the MDGs. This initiative includes the development of a number of analytical papers, the planning of a high-visibility event at the World Summit as well as the building of a strong coalition for MDG7 beyond the Summit

All in all human activities largely destroyed our environment, due to deforestation, bush burning over fishing, poor agricultural methods, over exploitation mineral resources, land reclamation, land fragmentation, over population, harnessing of energy and others, put our environment in grave side resulting into; air pollution, water pollution, soil erosion, extinction of species (rhino, tigers, lions certain types of fish, plants), loss of habitat for wild animals, land degradation, loss of ecological services (carbon cycle, nitrogen cycle, water cycle), global warming, ozone layer depletion, acid rain, desertification, diseases among others

Currently after the MDGs countries worldwide are working to adhere to principle of sustainable development which emphasizes proper use of environmental resources so that they can support present and future generations, developmental plans are now putting environmental considerations into actions. Environmental education and awareness is now being introduced as a course of study in various institution of higher learning from here the graduates will pass the acquired environmental knowledge to their societies on how to handle with care and conscious our godly given environment. Humans are now discouraged from over exploitation of environmental resources like forest, minerals, fisheries, wetland and among others. Developmental activities like industrial production are now required by laws to adhere to the principle of sustainable environment; they are advised to do what they can to minimize environmental pollution like air pollution from industrial emissions, water pollution by discharging industrial bi-products into water sources.

Nowadays, there is an international environmental day which is on 5th June, on that day environmental programs are being carried out like tree planting, soil conservation education, awareness on environmental issues like proper farming, proper liver stock keeping , these all help to preserve and conserve our environment.

Countries have strengthen the ministry of environment in each country which work together with other ministries like tourism, water, energy, and minerals, Agriculture, forest, fisheries to ensure that the environment is used in sustainable way so that it can support live on earth.

Also countries have formulated environmental councils to deal with environmental issues, for example in Uganda we have NEMA (National Environment Management Authority), Tanzania there is NEMC (National Environment Management Council), and These Councils have duty to ensure the environment is kept in a good health state.

 

At international level, countries have met in various locations to rescue our environment from the pollution caused by human activities example Montreal convention which looked on substances adding to green house effects which pollutes air, Vienna convention which investigated on substances depleting the ozone layer causing Ozone hole in Antarctica and the most recent Copenhagen summit in Denmark which talked on climatic changes and its causes, all these summit observe that human industrial activities and consumptions are contributing factors to climatic changes of our environment hence responsible members (developed countries) are required to reduce the emission and pay money to the suffers of environmental pollution (developing countries)

A lot of effort is needed from all of us to ensure proper utilization and management of the environmental resources so as to achieve sustainable environment. Like president USA Barrack Obama is much concern on solving the problem of Oil spills around the Gulf of Mexico.

Goal 8: Developing a Global Partnership for development

This goal has following targets

Target 12: Develop further an open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial system, Includes a commitment to good governance, development and poverty reduction – both nationally and internationally;

Target 13: Address the special needs of the least developed countries. Includes: tariff and quota-free access for least developed countries’ exports; enhanced programme of debt relief for heavily indebted poor countries (HIPC) and cancellation of official bilateral debt; and more generous ODA for countries committed to poverty reduction;

Target 14: Address the special needs of landlocked developing countries and small islands developing States (through the Programme of Action for the Sustainable Development of Small Island Developing States and the outcome of the twenty-second special session of the General Assembly)

Target 15: Deal comprehensively with the debt problems of developing countries through national and international measures in order to make debt sustainable in the long term.

Target 16: In cooperation with developing countries, develop and implement strategies for decent and productive work for youth;

Target 17: In cooperation with pharmaceutical companies, provide access to affordable essential drugs in developing countries;

Target 18: In cooperation with the private sector, make available the benefits of new technologies, especially information and communications;

Before the establishment of MDGs there was low global partnership among nations this led to the increase in economic gap between the rich and poor countries, developing countries suffered a lot from problems like environmental pollution, diseases, debt crises, poor infrastructures, and poor technology for production low prices of their agricultural products. All these increased poverty among these nations which in turn affect the environment as people struggled a lot to earn income for their survival by engaging environmentally unfriendly activities example conversion of natural ecosystems into human managed agricultural and settlement lands.   

The last goal – global partnership for development – is about the means to achieve the first seven MDGs.

Many global environmental problems – climate change, loss of species diversity, and depletion of global fisheries – can be solved only through partnerships between rich and poor countries.
Human Development Report / 2003

Intergovernmental decisions have stronger and broader recognition and support by the public if Governments take views of the civil society and other stakeholders into account as early as possible in the policy-making decision process. UNEP places great importance on working closely with civil society and the major groups, trade unions, the private sector and the scientific sector in various capacities, to facilitate the process of improving their environmental performance and display greater responsibility towards society.

In addition, various divisions of UNEP collaborate with relevant partnerships to provide services that closely support MDG.

After the establishment of MDGs now countries worldwide are collaborating in solving socio-economic cultural political and environmental problems like former USA president Gorge W. Bush donated a lot billions to support the campaign against malaria in Tanzania. Developing countries are now receiving relief of their debts; free medicines are now donated to health centers in developing countries, humanitarian services are being provided to the affected nations like Haiti, Brazil, China, and Tanzania. In ensuring political stabilities so as maintain the world peace, countries are donating their solders to political unrest countries like Uganda and Burundi are donating their solders to maintain or restore peace in Somalia.

Regional integration like SADC (South African developing countries), EAF (East African Federation), AU (African Union), EU (European Union), NAM (National Alien Movement), and others have and they are doing a lot to boost sustainable development among their member states for example, East African Federation is now doing a lot on improving its people by providing them common market, ensuring good governance, environmental protection and conservation measures interchanging of experts and students, encouraging eco-business and eco-industrialization among its member states(Tanzania ,Kenya ,Uganda  Rwanda and Burundi )      

All these lead to the development of global partnership among nations, which ensure sustainable development is achieved by all nations by the year 2015, this will also result in environmental sustainability.

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHALLENGES OF MILLEMIUM DEVELOPMENT GOALS IN BOTH DEVELOPED AND DEVELOPING COUNTRIES

The following are the challenges leading to the delay in achieving the millennium development goals by the year 2015,

Political conflicts that have disrupted trade and discouraging investors also have affected developmental activities in the fighting nations.

Persistence of environmental calamities like earth quakes in Haiti, landslides in Bududa-Uganda, drought in arid and semi arid parts of the worlds, tsunamis and floods destroy land fields, water resources leaving a great number of people susceptible to hunger and poverty which bring a large gap towards the achievement of MDGs

Social cultural norms that suppress the rights of women in their societies, and put them in an inferior position in society.

Poor government policies are discouraging the achievement of MDGs example the persistence of corruption in civil sectors denies a lot of developmental projects.

Overpopulation due to high birth rates among the people affects the provision of free primary education as the numbers of students are not in proportional with the available education facilities.

The wide span of poverty among people especially in the developing countries has driven people to carry out activities that are not environmentally friendly like deforestation in search of income.

The use of inappropriate technology put a barrier in achieving the MDGs like failure to eliminate diseases such as malaria; it also leads to increased environmental pollution.

 

 

CONCLUSION

Millennium development goals are very important in achieving a sustainable environment however, these goals have not yet been achieved especially in developing countries due to the challenges they are facing as explained above. A lot of efforts from both local and international stakeholders are needed towards the achievement of these goals. In so doing we shall achieve sustainable development at the same time a sustainable environment will be achieved as sustainable development emphasizes proper use of environmental resources so that they can continue to support the present and future generations to come. So let us all work together to achieve these goals and keep our godly given gift (environment) in a healthy state.

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

Michel L. Mckinney, (1998), System and Solution 3rd edition, Published by

               Bantana Company USA.

Enger & Smith,(2006), Environmental science 10th edition, Published by

                McGraw-Hill.

G. Tyler Miller, (2004), Environmental Sciences 10th edition, published by

              Jack carey USA.

Raven, Berg, & Johnson, (1998), Environmental Science, 2nd edition, Published by       

             saunder college.

William P. cunningham, (2002), Principle Environmental Science 1st edition, published

                 By McGrawhill

 

 

Name: Haykal Dahir Omar

Natiionality: Somali

Marial Status: Single

Sex: Male

Birth: 2/3/1985

Occupation: Student, Becholar Of Environmental Science

University: Kampala International University

 

Article from articlesbase.com

International Business Development: Applying Managerial Skills to Social, Environmental, and Health Care Problems Sebastian Teunissen [Executive Director, Clausen Center for International Business and Policy, UC Berkeley] Abstract: Technological advances are helping to create new solutions for some of the gravest problems facing developing countries. Whether the objective is to improve living conditions, eradicate disease or fight poverty, technologies have shown gratifying results. The individual s involved are incredibly talented and dedicated engineers, scientists, doctors or educators. But, rarely, are they equally prepared to be managers of the organizations whose creation their innovations so frequently spark. All too often, the challenges of managing the organizations themselves diminish the effectiveness of the underlying solution. Our program has helped many such managers by developing business plans, marketing strategies or related projects that help to guide the organization towards its goals in a more efficient and cost effective manner. This presentation will describe a number of these projects, the challenges they faced and suggested solutions. Biography: Sebastian Teunissen is Adjunct professor at the Haas School of Business and Executive Director of the Clausen Center for International Business and Policy. He manages the International Business Development (IBD) Program and the Seminars in International Business Program at Haas. IBD sends teams of
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Going Green for the Good of the Planet

Going green can relieve the strain on the earths’ resources

If you are interested in the environment,you are now fully aware that there are many people concerned about the future of the planet.
Will resources continue to be replenished as populations increase? Are supplies really unlimited.
The leading environmental scientist, researchers and politicians, however agree that going green action is needed now, although they may differ on how it should be done.
The need for serious action appears to becoming drastic, more green businesses are needed as industries need to stop polluting, governments need to support clean alternative energy programs and waste reduction programs should be implemented at the community levels.

An entire industry is developing around going green

Environmental protection or going green jobs appear to one of the fastest growing segments in employment. However it is not just governments, industries and communities that should be accountable, but every single individual can make a significant contribution toward cleaner greener world.
Going green should not be too difficult. There are simple lifestyle changes that can result in less damage to the environment.
It involves an holistic way of thinking that involves alternate choices about what you purchase and the effects they may have on the overall well being of the planet.
Scientific understanding about going green is constantly evolving and practical suggestions for the greener lifestyle are being adopted, but the pace appears to need acceleration.
Going green accepts as fact that there challenges facing the planet.Understanding these challenges and finding solutions are the top concerns of the environmentalists, many of whom believe that humans beings whether knowingly or unknowingly are responsible for damaging both the visible and invisible environment.
It is generally accepted that the earths’ climate is changing, but there are other important issues of equal importance.

Resources are being consumed at what appears to be unsustainable rates. Industrial processes are contributing harmful chemicals and waste Rising populations are contributing more waste to the planets

Going green brings hope to the future

Green living can start at home, including the construction and design of your home. There are multiple ways that waste can be reduced. The bigger bonus is that going green is often cheaper by focusing on buying and using less on things like utilities, and reusing and recycling as much as possible. The pleasing side effect is that you save money.
Implementing some going green living ideas, may require cash outlay, but even these suggestions are likely to pay for themselves in the long run.

A worldwide initiative is developing around Green businesses and green living.
Individuals are also required to make simple contributions.

Reap better rewards by creating a better environment

Article from articlesbase.com

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The West’s Eco-Imperialism Against the Third World | by Paul Driessen

Paul Driessen is the author of the excellent book, “Eco-Imperialism: Green Power, Black Death.” It exposes an axis of evil consisting of Western governments, the United Nations, environmentalist groups and various non-governmental organizations that are usurping economic and industrial progress in the Third World and keeping millions in the grip of misery and death all in the name of ecology protection and “sustainable development.” Related links: www.eco-imperialism.com http www.greatglobalwarmingswindle.co.uk http www.demographicwinter.com http www.discerningtoday.org Links to important essays and news articles Science, Politics and Death Environmental extremism kills. Millions die annually because of restrictions on DDT, and imposing the “Kyoto” regulations would kill many more. findarticles.com The Fruits of Eco-Extremism Banning essential substances has brought untold misery to millions. blog.myspace.com Environmental Genocide By virtually banning DDT use worldwide, the UNs POP treaty will condemn millions to death by malaria — a desirable result in the eyes of those seeking radical depopulation. blog.myspace.com The Silent Pandemic While exotic diseases like bird flu and SARS get all the attention, malaria is still killing millions in Africa, despite the fact that DDT remains an effective and affordable solution. findarticles.com Stopping Malaria In the wake of the tsunami, malaria and other mosquito-borne diseases may be the next tragedy to hit Southeast Asia. DDT
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Visit www.aaari.info for full video. Redefining Asian America, is a one-day forum which seeks to respond to our critical historical moment by challenging the boundaries of a traditional conference. Our goal is to provide a useful forum for Asian American community members to engage in outcomes-oriented dialogue and action around issues of sustainable community development: your voice is central to that effort, and we hope that you will be able to participate in these pivotal discussions. We are in a transformative period of American history, and Redefining Asian America is a crucial opportunity for all of us to educate ourselves, build new alliances, and strategize for the future of Asian America.

What are the problems in this theory? Its lengthy? 10 pts?

Question by Matthew D: What are the problems in this theory? Its lengthy? 10 pts?
Businesses do not grow from their own profits. They grow from investors. Investors who expect large returns on their investments. Smaller businesses use creditors. That’s where profit margins come into play. A company that has a solid history of large profit margins looks like a great place to invest, no? Well here is the problem. If the business has those attractive numbers due to constantly reducing overhead(higher worker productivity, outsourcing, tax cuts and deregulation), that business is probably in a saturated market and isn’t getting much new money. Its trying to grow in order to dominate in an already saturated market. Hence the overall dismal job creation and sucky wages.

In order for wages to go up the job market must be tight. Punitive taxes on businesses that outsource will remedy this. If you don’t rely on American workers, you lose your access to the American market. Hows that for incentive?
Once confined in the U.S. businesses will be stuck competing with each other in a more fierce environment. Increased federal laws will rob the ability of businesses to bully State governments and Congress persons with the threat of moving to another state which will allow for more worker friendly labor laws. Unions will maintain productivity at reasonable levels, preserving jobs.
The higher wages and employment will increase demand for products, helping businesses. Competition for this demand will guard against high prices and spur innovation.
If businesses wish to increase productivity without hiring more workers that will open new territory in technology. The technology enhancing old jobs will create new ones and start new businesses.
There would be less new money to be made in saturated markets than in new ones. Businesses in saturated markets will profit by competing for demand, have more modest profit margins and deliver more modest returns to investors.
The highest yield investments will therefore be in new markets, pushing money into new technologies and innovations. Thereby generating REAL economic growth instead of fake economic growth to deceive and entice investors.
truth seeker I addressed that. Consumers will be stronger because they’ll be making more money.

Best answer:

Answer by truth seeker
Businesses grow from consumers. Without consumers, there is no business growth, and in fact, no business.

Know better? Leave your own answer in the comments!

Outgoing U.S. Ambassador to Sweden Names Green Valley Network #2 Top Achievement

Fayetteville, AR (PRWEB) January 28, 2009

Green Valley Network’s partnership with the Swedish American Chamber of Commerce was listed last week by exiting U.S. Ambassador to Sweden Michael M. Wood as a top accomplishment, signaling that the sustainability technology initiative has gained international prominence, officials said.

Wood, who listed his top 12 accomplishments in conjunction with his retirement effective January 20th, said the visits and relocation discussions between several Swedish companies and the Arkansas-based sustainability technology initiative are a direct result of the close relationship his office has with Green Valley Network.

The former Ambassador began working with Green Valley Network in late summer 2008, after one of the Network’s founding entities, the Fayetteville Economic Development Council (FEDC), joined the Swedish American Chamber of Commerce (SACC).

Shortly thereafter, the city of Fayetteville, the Fayetteville Chamber of Commerce and the FEDC came together to hire Per-Erik Persson as the FEDC’s economic development liaison to connect Fayetteville and the Green Valley Network with Swedish businesses rooted in sustainability technology.

Since the beginning of the collaboration, Persson, Wood and Green Valley Network have successfully hosted more than one dozen companies looking to move to Green Valley, including Ageratec, Picoterm, StoraEnso, Acticut and 3nine.

Steve Rust, Green Valley Network and FEDC president, praised the City of Fayetteville and Ambassador Wood for their dedication to making the partnership successful.

“This initiative took some forward-thinking and a leap of faith,” Rust said. “I commend the City Council, former Mayor Dan Coody, the Fayetteville Chamber of Commerce and the FEDC Executive Board for supporting this out-of-the-box approach to economic development.”

Green Valley Network Executive Director Dan Sanker agreed, calling the discussions between Green Valley Network and sustainable technology companies in Sweden, “Another sign that Arkansas will become the epicenter for sustainability technology.”

Sanker, the founder and CEO of CaseStack, a sustainable supply chain innovator, established a regional headquarters for the logistics company in Northwest Arkansas in 2007. Sanker has said the reason for the new office in Fayetteville was to be located near the sustainable technology companies in the area, including Wal-Mart Stores, Tyson Foods, Strateline/Circle, Wind Water Technology, BioBased Systems, BlueInGreen and Coenco.

“This is a great example of Green Valley’s core mission: connecting the world’s best sustainability innovators,” Sanker said. “Between the companies pursuing a move to Green Valley and those that are already here, this region is poised as a major player for the next technology cluster.”

Through the partnership between the Swedish Ambassador and Green Valley Network, Arkansas will not only become the site for sustainability technology, but will reap the benefits of thousands of new jobs, an increase in median income and will help revolutionize the state’s economy, said U.S. Rep. John Boozman, R-Ark., a Green Valley Network supporter.

“The world is changing and Northwest Arkansas needs to change with it. The Green Valley Network has solidified Northwest Arkansas as the place for sustainability technology through its relationship with Ambassador Wood,” he said. “Ambassador Wood’s collaboration with Green Valley Network has been very successful and we look forward to continuing this great relationship with Sweden.”

Bob Davis, FEDC chairman, said he envisions substantial economic development in Northwest Arkansas as a result of Green Valley Network.

“I’m really excited about the local economic opportunities we have on the table as part of this initiative,” Davis said. “We will continue working with the new Swedish Ambassador and stay in contact with Ambassador Wood as we move forward.”

The Arkansas Economic Development Commission praised Green Valley Network for its extensive list of accomplishments.

“Sharing information is a key part to successful economic development,” said Maria Haley, executive director of the Arkansas Economic Development Commission. “The Green Valley Network seamlessly connects people and institutions that move economic development forward. I applaud the leadership of Northwest Arkansas for aggressively taking advantage of this unique opportunity.”

About Green Valley

Green Valley, the swath of land between Tulsa and Memphis and Southwest Missouri and the Arkansas Delta, is the center for the sustainability technology revolution. Green Valley is home to the highest concentration of plant scientists in the world, Wal-Mart, the largest funnel for global consumer demand and the largest proponent of sustainability on Earth, the largest pre-existing supplier cluster with 1,300 consumer goods companies, one of America’s largest oil and gas energy centers, the world’s busiest cargo airport and one of America’s largest agri-business centers with biofuel and eco-tourism opportunities.

About Green Valley Network

Green Valley Network is the communication tool for the universities, companies and governmental organizations within Green Valley. The Network fosters the collaboration and commercialization of sustainability technology. The non-profit organization, located in Northwest Arkansas, launched in May 2008 and has consistently doubled its membership each quarter. Many governmental offices, universities and businesses have rallied behind the initiative, including Nabholz Construction, NorthWest Arkansas Community College and Winrock International. Founding directors include Dan Sanker, president and CEO of CaseStack; Steve Rust, executive director of the Fayetteville Economic Development Council and Jon Johnson, executive director of the University of Arkansas Applied Sustainability Center.

Media Contact:

Liz Boch

Green Valley Network

O: 479.856.6140, ext. 2112

www.greenvalleynetwork.org

###



More Green Economics Press Releases

National Cemeteries Suffer Inadequate Funding



Washington D.C. (Vocus) May 7, 2007

National cemeteries within the National Park System are suffering from insufficient funding and other threats, the National Parks Conservation Association (NPCA) said today. Congress is holding a hearing this week about the state of the nation’s cemeteries.

“The National Park Service has a unique ability to foster understanding of these sites, and ensure that their significance is preserved for generations of Americans,” said NPCA President Tom Kiernan. “It is up to Congress and the Administration to see that the Park Service has the resources needed to do the job.”

Congress is holding a hearing on May 8 in the House Committee on Veteran Affairs on the state of the nation’s cemeteries; the National Park System contains 14 national cemeteries.

NPCA research shows that the national parks suffer from a chronic $ 800-million annual funding shortfall, which affects the ability of the National Park Service to protect national cemeteries and other cultural and historic sites.

Gettysburg National Military Park in Pennsylvania, which includes Gettysburg National Cemetery, has a 41% budget shortfall. NPCA’s Center for State of the Parks assessment of Andersonville National Historic Site in Georgia revealed that additional funding is needed to maintain the grounds of the national cemetery. Established as a national cemetery by the Secretary of War in 1879, Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument in Montana is threatened by adjacent development, and requires additional funding to protect artifacts from the Battle of Little Bighorn.

“The opportunity to visit a national cemetery and reflect upon the stories told therein provide a critical part of a visitor’s experience to national parks like Gettysburg and Andersonville,” Kiernan added.

NPCA is calling on Congress to support the Administration’s proposed $ 200-million operating increase for national parks in the 2008 budget, which would help to address the needs of national cemeteries and other sites within the park system.

For instance, the Administration’s 2008 budget requests an additional $ 79,000 for Andersonville National Historic Site–a 6% increase over the park’s fiscal year 2006 operating budget, and an additional $ 648,000 for Shiloh National Military Park in Tennessee, which also protects a national cemetery–a 37% increase over the park’s fiscal year 2006 operating budget. Maryland’s Antietam National Battlefield and Civil War cemetery is slated to receive an increase of $ 486,000–a 16% increase over its fiscal year 2006 operating budget.

The 14 national cemeteries in the park system are: Andersonville National Cemetery, Andersonville, Ga.; Andrew Johnson National Cemetery, Greeneville, Tenn.; Antietam National Cemetery, Sharpsburg, Md.; Battleground National Cemetery, Washington, D.C.; Chalmette National Cemetery, part of Jean Lafitte National Historical Park and Preserve in Chalmette, La.; Custer National Cemetery, part of Little Bighorn Battlefield National Monument in Crow Agency, Mont.; Fort Donelson National Cemetery, Dover, Tenn.; Fredericksburg National Cemetery, Fredericksburg, Va.; Gettysburg National Cemetery, Gettysburg, Pa.; Poplar Grove National Cemetery, Petersburg , Va.; Shiloh National Cemetery, Shiloh, Tenn.; Stones River National Cemetery, Murfreesboro, Tenn.; Vicksburg National Cemetery, Vicksburg, Miss.; and Yorktown National Cemetery, part of Colonial National Historical Park in Yorktown, Va.                                

Contact:

Andrea Keller Helsel

National Parks Conservation Association

P: 202-454-3332

###





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