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FMYI President Justin Yuen to Showcase Sustainability Employee Engagement Leadership at Fortune Brainstorm: GREEN 2010

Portland, Ore. (PRWEB) April 8, 2010

FMYI (for my innovation), Inc., a provider of Web 2.0 social workspace collaboration sites that empower teams to make a difference, today announced sustainability employee engagement pioneer and company president Justin Yuen to moderate a roundtable at the Fortune Brainstorm: GREEN 2010.

Forty years after the first Earth Day in 1970 comes an unparalleled opportunity to renew efforts to develop a healthier, more prosperous green economy. As the world grapples with the challenges of advancing climate policy, energy efficiency, renewable energy and green job creation, companies have made huge strides in becoming sustainability leaders by engaging employees in innovative and creative ways. With its online collaboration sites, FMYI makes employee engagement seamless for companies large and small. Using FMYI as a centralized communications and collaboration hub, companies are able to integrate sustainability across their entire enterprise by identifying new sustainable business practices, developing strategies for their implementation and measuring their success.

“Since FMYI was first started six years ago, employee engagement has been a critical component to our mission of empowering teams to make a difference,” said Justin Yuen, President, FMYI, Inc. “This roundtable is an incredible opportunity to be at the forefront of sustainability employee engagement by learning from the successes of industry leaders like Ernst & Young, Hyatt, NBC and Sodexho. Ultimately, by engaging and involving all employees within their respective enterprises these leaders are driving sustainable innovation for business results and creating the building blocks of a vibrant green global economy.”

Employee Engagement Makes Every Day an Earth Day!

During this roundtable discussion, industry leaders will share ideas and practical information about how to harness the power of employee passion and creativity to drive sustainability efforts throughout their respective organizations. As a longtime leader in sustainability employee engagement with over 13 years of experience at FMYI and Nike, Justin Yuen will draw on this knowledge to moderate panelists including:

    Beth Colleton, Vice President, Green is Universal, NBC Universal
    Holly Fowler, Senior Director, Sustainability and Corporate Social Responsibility, Sodexo
    Leisha John, Americas Director of Environmental Sustainability, Ernst & Young
    Brigitta Witt, Vice President, Environmental Affairs, Global Hyatt Corp.

About Fortune Brainstorm: GREEN 2010

Fortune Brainstorm: Green 2010 is a three-day-long conference for CEOs, senior executives, government policy makers, leading thinkers, investors, and environmental advocates. Centered on a discussion of how business can profitably help solve the world’s biggest environmental problems, the program will include one-on-one interviews, debates, informal breakout sessions and networking opportunities. Visit www.fortunelivemedia.com/brainstormgreen/ for more information about the conference.

About FMYI [for my innovation]

Founded in 2004, FMYI is a collaboration software company with headquarters in Portland, Oregon and operations in Orlando, Florida. By considering the triple bottom line of people, planet and profit, FMYI has endeavored to build an enduring business with minimum ecological impact and maximum social value because it is simply the right thing to do. FMYI is committed to sustainability internally and to injecting sustainability into the business practices of its clients. In addition to helping companies benefit from paperless work processes, FMYI also enables a team to track its sustainable commuting modes and methods and purchases renewable energy credits for clients’ FMYI power usage. Built with Web 2.0 technology, FMYI collaboration sites have been tried and tested by teams of all sizes (2-20,000) at companies, nonprofits, government agencies, and universities around the world. FMYI provides free support as an integral part of making technology work for people in keeping with its tagline, “Powered by human energy. ®”

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Related Sustainable Development Strategies For Central America Press Releases

Vision Shopsters: Country Analysis Report – Australia – In-depth PESTLE Insights

Australia Country Analysis Report analyzes the political, economic, social, technological, legal and environmental (PESTLE) structure of Australia. The report provides a holistic view of the country from historical, current and future persp

Table Of Contents :

Overview 1
Catalyst 1
Summary 1
Key Facts and Geographic Location 9
Key facts 9
Geographical location 10
PESTLE Analysis 11
Summary 11
Political analysis 12
Economic analysis 15
Social analysis 19
Technology analysis 23
Legal analysis 27
Environmental analysis 30
Political Landscape 33
Summary 33
Evolution 33
Structure and policies 36
Performance 41
Outlook 42
Economic Landscape 43
Summary 43
Evolution 43
Structure and policies 45
Performance 49
Outlook 62
Social Landscape 63
Summary 63
Evolution 63
Structure and policies 63
Performance 66
Outlook 69
Technological Landscape 71
Summary 71
Evolution 71
Structure and policies 71
Performance 72
Outlook 76
Legal Landscape 77
Summary 77
Evolution 77
Structure and policies 77
Performance 82
Outlook 83
Environmental Landscape 84
Summary 84
Evolution 84
Structure and policies 84
Performance 87
Outlook 88
Appendix 90
Ask the analyst 90
Datamonitor consulting 90
Disclaimer 90

Figure 1: Map of Australia 10
Figure 2: Australia – political events timeline 34
Figure 3: Australia – key political figures 36
Figure 4: Evolution of GDP growth in Australia, 1970–2009 45
Figure 5: Market capitalization of Australian securities exchange, 2001–08 48
Figure 6: GDP and growth rate in Australia, 2002–13 (constant prices) 50
Figure 7: Sector composition of GDP in Australia, 2009 51
Figure 8: Australia’s agricultural output, 2002–09 52
Figure 9: Australia’s industrial output, 2002–09 53
Figure 10: Australia’s services output, 2002–09 54
Figure 11: Australia’s external trade (merchandise), 2002–09 56
Figure 12: Australia – total FDI inflows, 2001–08 58
Figure 13: CPI and CPI-based inflation in Australia, 2002–13 59
Figure 14: Employment in Australia, 2002–13 61
Figure 15: Unemployment in Australia, 2002–13 62
Figure 16: Major religions in Australia 65
Figure 17: Expenditure on healthcare in Australia, 2002–13 67
Figure 17: Expenditure on education in Australia, 2002–13 69
Figure 18: Telecommunications market growth in Australia, 2002–13 73
Figure 19: Number of internet users in Australia, 2002–13 74
Figure 20: R&D expenditure in Australia, 2000–12 76
Figure 21: Australia – judicial structure 78
Figure 22: CO2 emissions in Australia, 2002–13 88

Table 1: Australia – key fundamentals 4
Table 2: Australia – key facts 9
Table 3: Analysis of Australia’s political landscape 12
Table 4: Analysis of Australia’s economy 15
Table 5: Analysis of Australia’s social system 19
Table 6: Analysis of Australia’s technology landscape 23
Table 7: Average annual salaries for researchers across countries 25
Table 8: Patents received by the US Patent and Trademark Office, 2001–09 26
Table 9: Analysis of Australia’s legal landscape 27
Table 10: Analysis of Australia’s environmental landscape 30
Table 11: Mid-year population by age (millions), 2009 64
Table 12: International environmental treaties signed and ratified by Australia 87

To know more about this report & to buy a copy please visit :

Visionshopsters expertise in providing comprehensive collection of online market research reports, events, seminars bookings, country reports, company profiles, latest books and magazines, customized research services offering informative solutions worldwide.

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More Evolution And Environmental Globalization Articles

Geoff Dabelko – Water Management as Conflict Management

Geoff Dabelko is Director of the Environmental Change and Security Program at the Woodrow Wilson Center. In this presentation, Dabelko describes how water quality and quantity are declining in many parts of the world, posing acute problems for communities and governments. This crisis, along with high levels of interdependence on shared water resources, has led many members of the news media and some politicians to warn of imminent “water wars” between countries. Yet such wars between nations over water have never occurred in modern history and are unlikely to take place in the future. Although tensions over water resources often lead countries to trade hostile words, such exchanges rarely escalate into full-fledged conflicts.

What Economic Recovery? What Economic Recession?

In early November the talking heads were breathlessly reporting the economy “grew” by 3.5% in the third quarter…that the economy was now recovering.  The end of economic contraction also signaled the end of the recession that began in the fourth quarter of 2007.  And they attributed much of this growth to the pick up in auto sales. To read the full government report, go to www.bea.gov.

The index of leading economic indicators, which has been positive for seven months now, is also suggesting the economy is in recovery.

So, is it true? Are we on a sustainable growth path now? Does this latest government release about the economy mean the worst is behind us? Does the Index of Leading Economic Indicators tell us the same thing?

Well, let’s look at the reports and see where the growth came from. Maybe that will give us some answers.

To start, the 3rd quarter’s growth rate has since been revised downward to 2.8%. And the following schedule shows the contribution to growth from the various sources in our economy.

The contributions to growth were as follows:

I appreciate this data table is a little busy, but it is important in order to understand the real nature of what some are calling a recovery. You will note the single largest contribution to the third quarter economic growth was inventory restocking. In my mind, putting stuff back on empty shelves is not growth. It is simply the reverse of the massive and aggressive destocking we saw in the fourth quarter of 2008.

So, if we take out restocking, the growth rate slips to 1.9%. Let’s also remove defense spending and healthcare, which are not growth items. After all, supporting our troops in Iraq, Afghanistan and around the world should not be considered economic growth. And more healthcare for an aging population should not be considered new growth.

If we eliminate defense and healthcare, growth is now reduced down to just 1.1%. But a major contributor to this remaining growth is vehicle sales. Now let’s look a little deeper into this item.

Month to month auto sales are highly volatile and seasonal. So while we did have the idiotic “Cash for Clunkers” government giveaway program that kick started some sales in the third quarter, there are two other factors that are more significant. Pent up demand has been growing and the Cash for Clunkers was just the catalyst.

Pent up demand is from the increasing average age of cars on the road, now over 9 years old. In addition, interest rates on car loans are near half of what they were in early 2007. The average car now has over 100,000 miles on it and interest rates on new car loans are low. Underwriting standards, at 10% down payment, have not changed over the past several years and average prices have not changed much and are at just under ,000.

Most of us are accustomed to seeing the total numbers of cars purchased, illustrated by the following chart. But remember, many of the cars we buy are imported and do not add to America’s economic growth. This chart gives us a full picture of consumer’s car purchases over the past decade.

As you can see, auto sales plateaued long ago at around 16 million a year. As car buyers went on strike last fall, auto sales plunged to less than 10 million a year, a sales level not seen since the early eighties.

But pent up demand from aging vehicle fleet and low borrowing rates will increase car demand from its current levels.

There is another factor that will give us insight into future auto sales. There are now 1.2 vehicles for every licensed driver. This means only 83% of the cars we buy are needed for transportation. The remaining 17% are discretionary and are purchased to support our lifestyles. So, anytime we are in a pinch and must cut back, like recessions, we can easily cut back on cars purchased.

Clearly, that is what we saw last fall and during the first half of 2009. We can delay our car purchases, and have. Eliminating this discretionary demand, car sales will stabilize at around 13 million a year.

Now let’s look at the car sales that affect our economic growth. The following chart shows the cars sold every month that were manufactured in the United States.

Source: U.S. Department of Commerce

The pink shaded areas of the chart are periods of recession. You will note car sales have been in a steady decline over the past ten years, recession or not. We did see a dramatic falloff earlier this year, and sales have partially recovered in the third quarter. However, this recovery is really very much part of the longer term pattern and not unique to this recession.

The result of pent up demand and low borrowing costs means auto sales will be higher than the low monthly sales of earlier this year. I expect auto sales will resume their long established pattern of seasonality and volatility.

Now, let’s go back to our “growth” story. As we have seen, the only significant contributor to 3rd quarter growth was auto sales. And many commentators attribute this to the government’s stimulus program. This is nonsense.

Ageing, high mileage vehicles, and low interest rates are more lasting and powerful influences on car sales that any government giveaway can be. Offsetting these two positives elements is a negative; discretionary car buying decisions equal to 17% of total demand. Car purchases can easily be delayed or even canceled…at least for a while.

Trade Imbalance=Oil

And before we all get too excited about this runaway growth we need to remind ourselves of the negative influence on growth from trade of a minus 0.8%. This is due primarily to our import of oil. More growth will make this trade imbalance worse as we import more oil to accommodate more economic activity.

The Congressional Research Service, the research arm of Congress recently issued a report on America’s hydrocarbon reserves showing the US to have the world’s largest reserves of fossil fuels, more than even Russia. The report is titled “U.S Fossil Fuel Resources: Terminology, Reporting, and Summary” and was released October 28, 2009. Go to www.opencrs.com to download this report.

We have the greatest endowment of fossil fuels of any country and we are importing huge amounts of oil. This is the result of poor policy and political and environmental pressures. Unfortunately not exploiting our own resources reduces our economic growth and puts continuing downward pressure on the dollar.

Leading Economic Indicators

The Conference Board’s Index of Leading Economic Indicators has been telling us since April that the economy is in recovery. The index has been positive every month since then. But let’s look a little closer at the components of this index. The big contributors to the positive performance have been vendor performance (restocking of shelves) and the stock and bond markets. As I said before putting stuff back on the empty shelves should not be viewed as sustainable growth.

The stock and bond markets have zoomed higher. The stock market is up 62% since its low in March. Corporate bond prices have increased as well, especially the high yield market up 56% since it low in March. These price increases have come without the benefit of increased earnings, stretching valuations to nose bleed levels.

Other components, such as consumer expectations (low and getting lower), jobless claims (bad, but stabilizing), average workweek (stable, at a 45 year low), and building permits (increasing from an extremely low base and still unsustainably low) tell a very different story. So it appears to me the index of leading economic indicators is leading us astray, with the only indicator of growth being an unjustified increase in capital market prices.

Some “growth” story, huh? Prudent investors should be extremely careful in this environment.

What About Next Quarter?

I believe it is important to view this highly touted “growth” story of the third quarter’s economic performance as a singular event.

After all, where is this quarter’s and next quarter’s growth going to come from…more war? More bandages and bedpans? More cars we don’t really need? I don’t think so.

Long term sustainable economic growth comes from new business formations that provide goods and services demanded by consumers. These businesses hire more workers and expand because their products are sold at a profit. The drive for self interest by each of us insures this will happen….UNLESS our government obstructs and frustrates this natural growth phenomenon with high taxes and burdensome and costly regulations.

And that is where we are. No entrepreneur, in his right mind, is going to start a business today. The obstacles to success and growth are just too great, making entrepreneurial activity too risky. The outlook for strong and sustainable economic growth is not good until the government removes these obstacles.

What are the chances our radical Muslim socialist President and a like minded Congress understand the true sources of growth? The actions taken by this administration and Congress to date guarantee a limited and short-lived economic recovery.  The economy will significantly underperform its potential.

What Recession?

Now that we determined there is very little growth in the 3rd quarter’s growth number and the prospect for growth in coming quarters is not good, let’s have a look at the recession and see how bad it is.

Was there a recession? Of course there was. But we need to examine it a little closer to look for insights about its severity, dispersion, and duration. Simply accepting the government’s revelation that real GDP declined for two consecutive quarters is not very useful to investors.

We need to understand the parts of the economy that are solid and secure, and those parts that are extended and vulnerable. Actually, I find it useful to think of recent economic events in terms of 2 economies.

Two Economies

Is there one recession or two economies? I think recent economic events are better explained by considering not one monolithic economy that goes up or down in concert and unity, but rather by considering 2 economies operating somewhat independently of each other.

One economy is stable and healthy, and another is false, sick and had no business existing in the first place. But they are interrelated …so the good or bad performance of one can show up in the performance of the other.

The first one relates to providing goods and services that all of us need, such as shelter, food, clothing, and other normal needs of America’s families. This includes education, entertainment, and lifestyles. As you will see, this economy is vital, important, healthy and functioning.

The second economy is one that should have never existed in the first place. It is an economy based on liars and losers buying houses that were not homes. This economy is sick and dying and at some point will no longer exist.

Examining the never ending stream of economic data in the context of two economies will give us insights into investing opportunities and dangers.

The Real Economy

The headline numbers are often about unemployment. And it is true; unemployment now exceeds 10% and shows little signs of abating. Underemployment is 18%. There seems to be lots of political pressure to do something about the high and rising unemployment and the government will undoubtedly try. But like always, they will be too late and follow the wrong actions. The recent Jobs Summit is a giant Joke.

The following chart compares total payroll employment (not unemployment) with total income and personal consumption expenditures. Payroll employment includes most of us. It does not include self employed and farm workers.

Normally, unemployment is the commonly reported figure, but it is a confusing number. It contains unemployed people who report every week but not those who don’t report, or whose benefits have expired, or those who have given up looking for employment. There are millions of these people and the unemployment number ignores them entirely. I find it more relevant to examine how many of us are employed and how it has changed. That is why I use employment instead of unemployment.

Payroll employment (blue line) has dropped precipitously since the end of 2007. Nearly 8 million people have lost their jobs in the past two years. Both economies have been affected. For example, 1.6 million construction workers have been laid off because of no construction work. But the real economy has also shed jobs. Manufacturing employment decreased by 2.1 million people. This reflects both the long term trend of less manufacturing in the US and the sharp cutbacks related to the panic stop in the supply chain last fall.

Payroll employment is behaving as it has in past recessions. In the 2001-2002 recession, employment declined and kept declining after the recession was over. We should expect the same from this recession…a continuing drop in employment.

The chart also shows personal income (green line) and personal consumption expenditures (red line). Even though employment has fallen off a cliff, both income and personal consumption has remained flat. In the prior recession income and consumption continued to rise as employment fell.

Income has declined slightly and personal consumption has not declined at all during this recession. Average compensation has actually increased. The same thing happened in the last recession. Income leveled off and personal consumption kept increasing.

There are several parts to personal income. It includes employee compensation, the largest part, income from investments, and income from the government in the form of transfer payments. Examples of government payments are social security, welfare and Medicare payments.

There is no recession in personal consumption. 70% of personal consumption is services and this sector has increased every quarter. In fact, service expenditures have never declined in any quarter, recession or not.

This next chart compares total income, which has not dropped in this recession to salaried compensation which has. In fact, you will note a widening t of the two lines especially since 2005. Salaried income is important as it is the primary driver of total income. And it is the source of the government payments through taxes.

Given the massive number of unemployed we would expect salaried income to decline, and it has, but not significantly. In fact, income per employee has risen in this recession.

Service employment is virtually unchanged. Declines in retail employment have been offset by increases in healthcare employment and federal worker employment.

Healthcare and federal government workers are asking “What recession?”

Source: St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank

Even though income levels have remained essentially flat during this recession, the troubling point in this graph is salaried income is declining. If salaried income continues to decline, our economic “recovery” will be short-lived.

Let’s look at some anecdotal indicators to examine the recession from a different perspective than just the government’s indicators. We will look at entertainment, charitable giving, lifestyle expenses, and others to get a better understanding of this “recession”.

America’s Pets

Consider America’s love affair with our pets. According to the National Pet Owners Survey, 62% of US households own a pet. The ownership has increased over time, up from 56% of household when the first survey was taken in 1988.

The following schedule illustrates the total cost of pet ownership over the decade.

Annual Pet Expenditures

($ Billions)

As you can see, our pampering of pets increased in both the past two recessions. Both ownership and amount has expanded. New products, such as hospice care and an airline that transports nothing but pets are just two examples of how we dote on our pets, recession of not.

Our pets are asking “What Recession?”


Next let’s consider our production of garbage. In particular, the amount of food scraps produced by America’s households and restaurants.

America’s Food Scraps

Source: Environmental Protection Agency

Tonnage produced declined slightly in the last recession in 2001, but increased again the following year. Even with this 2% decline, the percentage of food scraps to total solid waste increased to 11.4%. In 2008, a recession year, both the amount and percentage increased. America produced a record 32 million tons of food scraps during the deepest recession since the early seventies.

The trash haulers are asking, “What Recession?”

College Football

Let’s ask America’s college football fans. We will check their response to this recession by looking at National College Athletic Association Football Division I attendance records for the past six years. This does not include all college football game attendance, but Division I is top level of competition in college football and has the widest following. The following schedule shows the annual attendance records at the 119 schools included in Division I.

Source: National College Athletic Assoc.

As you can see, attendance increases every year, recession or not. In the deepest recession since at least the mid 70’s, college football attendance keeps climbing.

College football fans are asking, “What recession?”

New Businesses

As we all know, small businesses are a vital and significant contributor to our economy and overall employment. There are some 6 million businesses in America that employee people. The difference between small and large businesses is the number of employees. Large businesses are defined as those with 500 or more employees. There are only 18,000 large businesses in the United States. Small businesses, those with less than 500 employees, accounted for 64% or 14.5 million of the 22.5 million new jobs added to the economy from 1993 to 2008. One third of these new jobs came from new firms.

The following chart shows the total new businesses started versus the number of businesses closed, and the ratio of starts to closures. About one percent of new businesses are added each year to the 6 million existing businesses. The failure rate of new businesses within the first five years of existence has always been high, around 80%. The chart below does not track that, it just shows the number of businesses opened and closed each year, not their longevity.

As you can see, closures amounted to about 85% of new business formations from 2004 to 2007. But the ratio shot up to 95% in 2008, clearly reflecting the difficult business climate.

Business Formations and Failures

Source: Small Business Administration

New business formation is a key element in employment and economic growth. While new starts have remained essentially flat, failures have increased dramatically. The recession is just one reason. Federal regulation is another. Here is the cost of federal regulation on businesses each year.

Annual Cost of Federal Regulations

(Cost Per Employee)

Source: Small Business Administration

As you can see, the economy’s best growth engine, small business, bears the greatest regulatory burden. Federal regulatory costs for small business are 45% higher than the costs for large business. This will tend to discourage strong economic growth and make small business failures more likely. High taxes and punishing regulations insure economic growth in coming quarters will be tepid and vulnerable.

Charitable Giving

You would expect charitable giving to decline when times are tough. And it did decline in 2008, but not significantly. Interestingly, contributions to churches and domestic and international charities actually went up. The big decline was to human service organizations and education.

The following schedule outlines charitable giving during this recession, showing the source, which is primary individuals, and the recipients, which are primarily churches.

Charitable Giving

Source: Giving USA 2008 Report

Most givers are saying “We don’t care if there is a recession.” And many Churches and charities are saying, “Thank God for the generosity of the American people even in hard times.


Is everything going up? No, of course not. Discretionary spending has declined. We are buying fewer cars, as we already discussed, and our vacations are less expensive and extravagant. We have cut back on eating out, especially in upscale restaurants. The days of the ,000 ice sculpture business luncheons are over…at least for now. And no one will miss them except the ice sculptor.

For the most part, families go about their lives as they always have. But fifteen million unemployed people are going to have some impact on all of us. You and I may have a job, but a family member, friend or someone we know is probably out of work.

Recession and unemployment cause economic hardship. But we must remember recessions are a natural and necessary part of the economic cycle. That is why we call it a cycle… it has both up and down phases. Economic cycles are healthy. The up cycle goes too far. At its peak, it encourages marginal investments that fail. These failures cause economic dislocations, including unemployment, but also prepare the way for the next up cycle to begin.

Solomon, the wisest man who ever lived, assures us there will always be cycles and they will exist as long as the earth exists. So, instead of trying to banish them, as governments desperately try to do, so we should include them in our investment planning, as a normal and recurring event.

The False Economy

This is an economy that should never have existed in the first place. It could not exist without liars and losers. I am talking about millions of houses we built that were not homes. Liars and losers bought them at ever higher prices, all facilitated by government requirements for banks to make loans to unworthy and unqualified borrowers. This was the triumph of hope over experience and was inevitably going to end badly. Liars are not worthy of loans and losers can’t afford them.

The housing bubble that resulted took time to form as the following chart illustrates.

Source: U.S Census Bureau

The blue line shows the steady rise in America’s total housing units. The sharp dip in 2002 is only a change in the way the Census Bureau tracks this information and not an actual decline.

From 2002 until 2008 America added to its inventory of houses. In 2002 our housing inventory was 117 million houses; in 2008 our housing inventory was 130 million houses. As of the end of the 3rd quarter of 2009 we had 130,302,000 housing units. This includes both single family and multiple family dwellings. The number of households has remained flat for the past 6 years at around 110 million. The current number is 111,612,000.

About one million new households are formed each year. And they need housing. A good rule of thumb is America needs to build new houses equal to the new household formations every year.

The number of houses and the number of households should track closely together. In the past, these two lines (blue and red lines) were very close together. In 2002 the blue line and red line started to diverge. From 2002 until 2008 we built 13 million houses we did not need and were not occupied. That’s a bubble!

The chart also shows the median house price in green (right scale), which started rising sharply coming out of the 2001-2002 recession.

As house prices rose, we built even more houses. The difference between houses and households is empty houses, which keeps rising even as we build more houses.

This reinforcing pattern of higher prices and more empty houses just kept getting worse, creating a massive housing bubble. This of course was all enabled by the idiots in Washington, who wanted every voter to be a homeowner even if it was temporary and foolhardy.

The music stopped when house prices could rise no further and began to fall in mid 2007. After a lag, new housing starts began to decline from the unsustainable rate of 2.2 million a year.

As you can see from the chart below, starts climbed rapidly after the 2001-202 recession, despite no increase in households. And currently, new housing starts have plunged to way below the level of new household formations. As the excess inventory gets absorbed, new housing starts will resume a more normal and sustainable level at around 1 million a year.

Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Let’s add one more dimension to this sorry picture; the financing. If all of these houses had been built with 100% equity they would not have been built. The reason they were built was because 100% or near 100% financing was available to unworthy borrowers. Congress passed laws requiring banks to lend to liars and losers. This created a recipe for mischief that built the bubble larger than market forces would have allowed.

The following chart illustrates the total outstanding debt of all US households (blue line). This is primarily mortgage debt, but also includes .5 trillion in consumer debt such as car loans and credit cards. I have also included two of the funding sources for mortgage financing that made the housing bubble much worse than it needed to be.

The first source was mortgage pools (red line) organized by hundreds of small mortgage originators and sold to investors by Wall Street firms. The second was government backed agency pools, such as Freddie Mac and Fannie Mae (green line).

Source: Federal Reserve

After rising rapidly from 2002 to 2008, total household debt has leveled off and is starting to decline. Mortgage pools have declined drastically. Essentially, no new pools have been formed and the existing pools are being paid off or charged off. The sad part of this is that government sponsored loans are still increasing. Everyone, it seems, understands a housing bubble except the government.

Building houses we did not need financed with loans we could not pay employed millions of people. Many are now unemployed.

The following chart shows the employment levels of both the construction and financial services industries. As you would expect, construction is a more volatile industry than banking. Even so, both industries have shed millions of employees in the past two years.

Source: St. Louis Federal Reserve Bank

One million six hundred thousand construction workers and nearly 500,000 financial service workers have been laid off since the recession began.

According to the American Bankers Association, 14.1% of single family houses were in either delinquent or foreclosure status. This is an all time high since the American Bankers Assoc. has been gathering data in 1972. This amounts to just over 4 million homes.

As the largest mortgage lenders, banks are suffering massive write offs and losses. So far this year, 129 banks failed and were closed by the FDIC. This compares with 26 bank failures in 2008 and just three in 2007.

Unfortunately, the real economy and many normal and prudent banks and borrowers got caught in this housing bubble. Rising house prices affected any family that relocated for business or career reasons. They had to pay more and borrow more for their new house. And the bursting bubble has left them with less equity than when they purchased the home. In effect, they are stuck, at least for the next few years, in homes with loans larger than the value of the house.

Limited Loans

Banks have become much more conservative in their lending since the housing meltdown and the freezing of the credit markets. The following chart shows where they are investing now. It is certainly not in loans to businesses and consumers.

As you can see, business loans (called C&I loans) have fallen by 0 billion in the past year. And consumer loans have declined slightly. The real eye opener is the excess deposits banks must maintain with the Federal Reserve Bank.

All banks are required to maintain a minimum amount of reserves kept on deposit with the Fed. The minimum is shown in the green line from 2000 until October 2008. Much of the 0 billion in government bailout money that went to prop up the major banks last fall was immediately redeposited with the Federal Reserve. As you can see, excess reserves zoomed from near zero to trillion in the past year.


The declining availability of credit from banks, declining employment, declining house prices, bank failures, housing foreclosures, and very low new housing starts are all clear evidence this false economy is disappearing.

The false economy is not very big, relative to our national economic engine, but nevertheless it is causing lots of pain. Unfortunately, that is how bubbles end…in pain and loss.

Ok, so let’s add this up:

-Most of our economy is solid, functioning and healthy.

-The outlook is for slow growth until risk/return is in better balance

-The housing bubble is deflating and the false economy is disappearing

Portfolio Strategy

My analysis is that there was no recession in much of our economy, and there certainly was no recovery.

The outlook is for us to sputter along, dragged down by excessive regulations, confiscatory taxes, and the slow abandonment of the economic principals that made us the most powerful economy on earth.

In this environment it becomes essential to adhere strictly to our investing disciplines of high and sustainable income. We will continue to avoid any investments related to the False Economy, such as residential housing and finance.

May you live long and prosper,

Mike Williams, CFA

Mike Williams is a professional money manager and Chief Investment Officer for Panhandle Portfolios, Inc. He has a BBA from the University of Massachusetts, an MBA from Southern Illinois University, and has held the Chartered Financial Analyst (CFA) certification since 1990, Certificate #13376.

He has been a credit analyst, a foreign exchange exposure analyst, an international pension expert, an international equity portfolio manager, a Japanese stock analyst, and the founder and chief executive officer of several companies engaged in a variety of business ranging from commercial real estate in New England to recycling electronics in China.

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Women and Education: A Critical Review

Women and Education: A Critical Review

   *Dr.P.Shanmukha Rao  **Dr.N.V.S.Suryanarayana


Empowerment of the women is an essential component of the political and social development of society. The growth  and  development of a community or civil society  depends upon the  growth and  development of its individuals in general and the women in particular. There is no doubt about the fact that men and women are equal, but women have a vital role in the over-all  development of  the society and the nation. Women are equal partners in the over all  growth  and development of the family, community and society. Women have been given a position of pride in every religion. In Islam, Christianity, Hinduism and other religions they are  respected and due importance is given to their role and rights. In the Holy Quran a complete Sura, “Sura-i-Nisa” is devoted for the role, welfare, rights and duties of the women. No student of the comparative religious philosophy can fail to observe that at the fountain of every spiritual faith and at the basic fabric of every civilized society, stands a woman whose sympathy blesses the work of infusing a new life into humanity.

Women are the foundation of a family, society and finally the Nation. In this paper an attempt has been made to discuss the importance of education for women and role and status of a women in the present scenario.

Women constitute an important segment of the society and shapes the entire            future of the humanity and nation. It has been rightly said that behind every successful man there is a woman. This clearly indicates that women as an integral part of our society have a vital role not only for rearing and bearing the children, but also for the personality development of our future generation and development of the Nation as whole.1 Role and status of a woman by any standard  is related to various variable factors which among others include the upbringing of the women, personality development, education of the women, family environment, social outlook, surrounding circumstances, political scenario, religious commands and their interpretation. Nevertheless, the biological and social status of a women along with her distinct roles as a mother or sister or daughter on one hand and wife or mother-in-law, sister-in-law or daughter-in-law on the other hand can not be ignored.

Women with good health and positive leadership qualities are very important in every family and society. Role of women in the traditional societies no doubt was confined to the household management based on the traditional values, attitudes and customs, but the family culture in the context of which early socialization takes place is very important factor which later on encourages or discourages her participation in the socio-economic activities of the family and subsequently in the organizational, social and political matters of the society.

Women almost in every social set-up plays an important role in the economic welfare of the family. She as a mother cares, bothers, loves, showers affection and takes all the pains for the entire family and thereby plays an important role not only as a home maker, home manager but also in maintaining social ties with the relations, friends and neighbours.


The Perspective:

Education is an important weapon for the over-all development of the community in particular and the society in general. The growth  and  development of a community or civil society  depends upon the  growth and  development of  its individuals. Women have been and continue to be equal partners in the over all growth  and development of the family, community and society. Women constitute an important segment of the society and shape the future of the individuals, nation and humanity. It has been rightly said that behind every successful man there is a woman. This clearly indicates that women as an integral part of our society have a vital role not only for rearing and bearing the children, but also for the personality development of our future generation and development of the Nation as whole.1


Women have been given a position of pride in every religion. In Islam, Christianity, Hinduism and other religions women are respected and due importance is given to their role and rights. In the Holy Quran a complete Sura, “Sura-i-Nisa” is devoted for the role, welfare, rights and duties of the women. No student of the comparative religious philosophy can fail to observe that at the fountain of every spiritual faith and at the basic fabric of every civilized society, stands a woman whose sympathy blesses the work of infusing a new life into humanity. Women are the foundation of a family, society and finally the Nation.


Role and status of a woman by any standard  is related to various variable factors which among others include the upbringing of the women, personality development, education of the women, family environment, social outlook, surrounding circumstances, political scenario, religious commands and their interpretation. Nevertheless, the biological and social status of a women along with her distinct roles as a mother or sister or daughter on one hand and wife or mother-in-law, sister-in-law or daughter-in-law on the other hand can not be ignored.

Women with good health and positive leadership qualities are very important in every family and society. Role of women in the traditional societies no doubt was confined to the household management based on the traditional values, attitudes and customs, but the family culture in the context of which early socialization takes place is very important factor which at later stage encourages or discourages her participation in the socio-economic activities of the family and subsequently in the organizational, social and political matters of the society. Women in almost every social set-up plays an important role in the economic welfare of the family. She as a mother cares, bothers, loves, showers affection and takes all the pains for the entire family and thereby plays an important role not only as a home maker, home manager but also in maintaining social ties with the relations, friends and neighbours.

In this paper a modest attempt has been made to critically examine education and status of women in the light changing scenario. Literacy level among women and impact of education vis-a-vis empowerment of women has been analyzed to high light contribution of the women in the political, economic and social development.  


Women and Education:

Education is an important component for the growth and development of the community in particular and the society in general. Education is the essence of human emancipation and the most potential weapon against poverty, disease and hunger. Education is an important factor in shaping the personality of an individual. It is through education that one learns his various role expectations and also the means and mechanism of role fulfillment. 

Every country provides to its citizens equality before law and equal protection of laws. Moreover equal opportunity in the employment and other matters is guaranteed by the constitutional provisions in every civilized country. Indian Constitution also guarantees equality and equal opportunity to the citizens irrespective of their race, caste, sex, religion or region. However, it has been found that the women are lagging behind almost in every sphere, but their vital role in building the family cannot be under estimated. Kapoor,2 in her study has rightly pointed out that the women are the nuclei of the nation, just as the body is made up of millions of cells controlled by their nuclei, a nation is made of millions of families depending on the women, house wives and mothers for their progress and well being. The health and growth of the body depends on the vitality of its cells, so also the health and growth of the nations depends on the vitality of its women.

A good mother provides best human resources for the Nation. Napolean once remarked  that  give  me  good  mothers,  I  shall  give  you  a  good  Nation. In an annual conference on community development, Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru3 observed;

“.In order to awaken the people, it is the women, who has to be awakened.                                                                                   Once she is on the move, the house hold moves and the country moves and thus  we build the India of tomorrow…..”

Pt. Nehru was of the considered view that when women move forward, the village moves, the Nation moves. Women are equal partners in the human resource development and in their different capacities contribute a major share in the political and economic sector. The importance of women’s education has been realized throughout the world. As per the World Bank Report,4 there has been substantial investment in education in the developing countries, but two thirds of the world’s illiterates are women, who in many countries, only complete with erratic attendance, the equivalent of two or three years of primary schooling. Children’s educational attainment is related more to the education level of mothers than fathers, therefore, illiterate mothers breed illiteracy.5

Eradication of illiteracy amongst women is an essential step for eradicating gender inequality and enabling women to play their role in national development.6 During more than last fifty years, the number of illiterate population has increased with women constituting majority. Venkataraman,7 the then President of India, while inaugurating the first National Conference on Eradication of illiteracy Among Women’s observed.

“Our country can never progress if women are seeped in ignorance. The New National Education Policy, had been enunciated in recognition of the fact that education, being an agent of change, can hasten termination of social evils and bring about equality…..”


Status of Women:

Women folk is the basis of human race and one of the main contributors of the  human resource development. It is however, only a small number of women who have undoubtedly made their presence felt in various fields like administration, business, science, commerce, education, politics and various other sectors. It is a matter of fact that despite the commendable contribution of women almost in every sector of life and the society, their role in policy making or decision making bodies is  not significant.  A brief profile of women in the present scenario has been drawn in the Jakarata Declaration8 in the following terminology:   

“Women represent almost fifty percent of the population, make up thirty   percent of the official labour force, perform sixty percent of all the working hours, receive ten percent of the world income and own even less than one percent of the world population.”

It has been rightly maintained by Usha9 that in the present scenario, only 10.0 percent of the parliamentary positions and 6.0 percent of the ministerial posts are occupied by women. Nisar Ahmad10 in his paper ‘Women Empowerment and Policy Perspective’  has pointed out that women are poorly represented in ranks of power, policy and decision making bodies. Women constitute less than 5.0 percent of the world’s Heads of the States, Heads of the major Corporations  and top positions in International Organizations. The following figures are an eye opener in respect of the women’s representation in various sectors in India.

                   a)   Women registered practitioners  (1995)       20.80  Percent

                            b)   Women Chartered Accountants (1996)        05.80  Percent

                c)   Women High Court Judges (1996)               03.00  Percent 

                d)   Women in the Supreme Court (1996)          04.00  Percent

                e)   Women in IAS (1997)                                 10.30   Percent

                f)   Women in  IFS (1998)                                 11.40   Percent

                g)   Women in IPS (1999)                                  03.50   Percent

                h)   Women in Rajya Sabha (1998)                    06.12   Percent

                i)   Women in lok Sabha (1998)                         08.99   Percent


         Women play an important role in shaping humanity in the right perspective, but have suffered and continue to suffer in the male dominated society. Women bestow power to the new generation and thereby empower the Society and Nation in a real sense, but they themselves continue to be helpless and powerless. World conference of UN decade for women defined development as the total development including development in the political, economic, social and cultural growth of human persons. World community at Rio Earth Summit11 pledged their commitment to the empowerment of women, which they believed is central and powerful force in search for safe environment, economic and social justice, survival of all species and the common goal of a healthy planet in which future generation can nourish and flourish.     


Education and the Society:

Education is an important component of development and is closely linked with the developmental process of the community, society and nation. Women education and education at the gross root level provides the ‘basis’ and ‘basic inputs’ but education at the higher level is expected to provide leadership qualities in every sphere of the life. Education is a continuous human learning process, which has no end.12 It is a vital process for human resource development, nation building, national development and transformation of the society. At the dawn of the 21st century, literacy has become vital and critical input into the process of development for every country.

The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) has included literacy as a factor in the Human Development Index and under the aegis of UNESCO, many countries are united in their fight against the problem of illiteracy. The World Declaration on Education for All held at the Jomtien Conference held at Thailand (1990) is a milestone in this direction.13 The recent World Education Forum held in Senegal (2000) is yet another expression of the international commitment. Two of the six goals of the Dakar Framework for Action – the international pledge made to provide education for all by 2015.14  However, a vast majority of women continue to be illiterate. It is a matter of fact that in most of the developing as well as under-developed countries, the vast majority of the people continue to be illiterate and are not in a position to reap benefits of the development and therefore, continue to suffer in the modern hi-tech and knowledge based society.

The literacy level varies from country to country and in the same country from area to area, depending upon a number of variable factors. The following table shows sex wise literacy status of the SAARC countries i.e. Maldives, Sri Lanka, India, Bhutan, Pakistan, Nepal and Bangladesh. The literacy status of the SAARC countries is given in the Table-I      

                                                                              Table No. – I         

                                                              SAARC Literacy Status


Non-literate Pop.   15+

(In Million)

     Literacy Rate 15 + Percentage (2000)     ___________________________________

 Total         Male       Female       Difference

01. Maldives






02. Sri Lanka






03. India






04. Pakistan






05. Nepal













The figures in the above table  reveal  that the  highest  literacy level among the SAARC  countries  has been in  Maldives  with 96.90 percent literacy level. The male  and  female  literacy level in  Maldives  being almost same. The lowest literacy level (40.0 percent) among the SAARC countries as per the figures of 2000 was in the Bangladesh  with 49.40  percent among males and 30.20 percent among females. Nepal’s literacy level was at 41.70 percent with 49.40 percent among males and 30.20 percent among females. In Nepal the difference between male and female literacy was around 35.40 percent. Pakistan in the year 2000 registered the literacy level at 43.20 percent with 57.40 percent among males and 27.90 percent among females. The difference between male and female literacy level has been recorded at 29.50 percent.

Further, literacy level in Bhutan and Afghanistan as per the World Education Report-199515 reveal that the literacy rate in Bhutan with a population of 0.55 million was at 42.20 percent, where as in Afghanistan with a population of 8.16 million it was at 31.50 percent. The female literacy in Bhutan was at 28.10 percent and in Afghanistan as low as 15.0 percent. The gap between male and female literacy in Bhutan is 28.10 percent and in Afghanistan it is 32.20 percent.

The estimates of UNESCO (2000),16 reveal that one in five adults aged over 15 were illiterate. There were about 860 million illiterate adults in the world. Among these,70.0 percent live in Sub-Saharan Africa, South and West Asia and Arab States. East Asia and the Pacific report an overall literacy rate of 86.0 percent. Latin America and Caribbean region has 11.0 percent of illiterate population. 

As per the report of the United Nation’s Population Division, the world population at the end of the 20th century touched 6070.6 million (males=3054.3 million and females=3016.3 million)17 Non-literate population (15+) constitute 862.0 million (310.3 million males and 551.7 million females). The literacy level at the global level in the age group 15 + was 79.7 percent. (Males= 85.20 percent and Females = 74.20 percent)

It appears that in a short span of time, it may be possible to achieve cent-percent literacy in the countries like Maldives and Sri Lanka, but in other SAARC members it is a very difficult task and may take decades to accomplish the target with all the inputs put together. The level of female literacy in India (47.82 percent), Bangladesh (30.20 percent), Bhutan (28.10 percent) Pakistan (27.90 percent), Nepal (24.00 percent) and Afghanistan (15.0 percent), has not even touched 50.0 percent. The low female literacy in these countries is bound to effect the over-all development of the family in particular and the society in general.18 

The literacy level in some  of  the  Asian  countries is  better than the literacy level in the SAARC countries. The literacy rate of Korea is at 97.80 percent and that of Thailand, Philippines and Vietnam is above 90.0 percent, where as that of Malaysia, Indonesia, China and Myanmar is above 84.0 percent. The literacy status of Iran and Laos is 76.0 percent and 64.8 percent respectively.19


The literacy rate through out the world has improved and female literacy has also shown upward trend, but in some of the developing countries female literacy continues to be at lower ebb. India is one the developing countries where female literacy in some of the States continues to be very low. Further, the SAARC countries are lagging far behind in literacy status as compared to the literacy status of other Asian countries. It is interesting to note that  the  literacy  level  of  Laos is far better than the literacy level of India. The literacy status in most populous countries including the countries already discussed is given in the Table-II 

                                                            Table No. II

                                  Literacy Status: Most Populous Countries

Country/ Rank    

  in Literacy

Non-literate Pop.  Rank. 15 +  (Million)

     Literacy Rate 15+ Percentage (2000)           Total          Male      Female         Difference

01. Mexico

  (09)    005.845





02. Brazil

  (08)    015.885





03. Indonesia

  (07)    019.377





04. China

  (02)    141.903





05. Nigeria

  (05)    022.510





06. India      

  (01)    259.530





07. Egypt

  (06)    019.613





08. Pakistan

  (04)    046.702






  (03)    050.558






The figures of the Table-II reveal that the most populous country among the nine countries in the age group of (15 + ) is India  (259.530 million) with 60.97 percent literacy level in the said age group followed by China (141.530 million) with a comparatively better literacy status of 85.20 percent. Bangladesh with a population of 50.558 million in the 15 + age group is on the bottom of the literacy ladder of the nine countries. (40.0 percent). Pakistan with a population of 46.702 million in the (15 + ) age group has the literacy level of 43.20 percent which is slightly better than Bangladesh. Nigeria which among the nine countries, as per population stands on  5th position has literacy level at 64.0 percent which is better than India. Egypt which stands on 6th level as per population, has the literacy level at 55.30 percent which is below than literacy level of India but far better than the literacy level of Pakistan and Bangladesh. Further, Indonesia, Brazil and Mexico, as per population, stand on 7th, 8th and 9th position respectively but in respect of literacy status their position is in the reverse order i.e. among the most populous nine countries Mexico has the highest literacy level (91.20 percent) followed by Brazil (86.90 percent) and Indonesia (86.80 percent).20   

All the countries in the world have augmented their educational net work to meet the challenges posed by the illiteracy. The measures taken in this direction vary from country to country and in the same country from  area to area, depending upon the resources available in  the respective country/area.

Women’s Empowerment and Development:

Empowerment of Women in any society is an important factor to enable women to participate in the economic and political development of the society. In India educational  programmes aim at eradication of illiteracy among women for their equality in the society and to ensure their empowerment.

The National Policy on Education (NPE) provides that education be used as a strategy for achieving a basic change in the status of women. The main features of  the NPE are as follows.21

a) To gear the entire education system to plan a positive  interventionist role in the

     empowerment of women.

b) To promote women’s studies as a part of various courses and encouragement to   

     educational  institutions   to  take up  active  programme  to  further  women’s


c) To widen  the  access  of  women  in programmes of vocational, technical and

     professional education;

d) To create dynamic managerial structure to cope up  with the targets envisaged.

 The New Education Policy22 provides the following parameters for empowerment of


a)      Building a positive self-image and self-confidence;

b)      Developing ability to think critically;

c)      Building up group cohesion and fostering decision making and  action;

d)      Ensuring equal participation in the process of bringing about social change;

e)      Providing the reasonable opportunities for economic  independence.

The women’s equality is essential for the over all growth of the society. Further, the women’s equality can be achieved through education so that they are in a position to develop the critical under-standing of all the things surrounding them.     

Conclusions and Suggestions:

Women are an integral part of our society. The idea of human race can’t be conceived  with out the existence of a woman. Women in the holy books have been bestowed with a very high status and have been adored with various adjectives. She is called as mother of the nation and it is said that education of the mother means education of the entire family.

Women through out the ages have played an important role in the economic, social and political sector. She has proved her capacity and capability not only as the bread distributor, but also as one of the main contributors to the family income.

Women in the urban set-up works shoulder to shoulder with male counter parts in every sphere of life. In most of the sectors women excel their male counter parts and have proved very successful in their endeavor.

Woman may be a vegetable grower or seller or a fish seller or looking after the cattle or selling milk or she may be working in the private or public sector or working as a house wife or as a ordinary labourer or working with her family members in the paddy fields or orchards or doing any other odd job, she contributes to  the family income in many ways and plays a vital role in the socio-economic and political development of the nation.

Women whatsoever their occupation or profession may be, contribute in to the humanity in their own humble way and their contribution under any circumstances can’t be underestimated.

Women literacy is an important input for the economic, social and political development of the civilised society and therefore, every segment of the society, especially the Institutions of learning have an important role in this venture. It is a matter of fact that socially important element in the education is that the Universities are the instruments of social regeneration and reconstruction.23 

Women education no doubt is vital for the growth and development of the family and society as whole, but it is a matter of fact that vast majority of women through out the globe continue to be far below than men. It is rightly believed that education of a man means education of one individual, but education of a woman means education of the entire family. In order to promote social, economic and political development, education of women is to be given top priority every where at every level.

Women in the modern hi-tech society, which is moving very fast under the shadow of population explosion, conflicts, chaos and corruption, can mould the personality of the adolescents and youth in a proper direction and perspective, provided the women are themselves empowered.             

Women empowerment is an essential component for the human resource development. World conference of UN Decade for Women defined development as the total development including development in the political, social, economic and cultural.

Women can play a vital role in the social, economic and political development of the society provided they are conscious of their rights and responsibilities. Their vision regarding their role in the present scenario has to be clear to serve the cause of humanity and to realise the basic purpose of life.  



01.   Pillai; J & K. (1995) Women and Empowerment. 

02.  Kapoor; M: (1986) Women and Family Life Education In India.

03.  Pt. Nehru; J: Prime Minister’s Message” See Summary  Record of Annual Conference on Community

       Development, Government of  India (1985)

04. See World Bank Reports, Washington D.C.-4   

06. Shri  R. Venkataraman (Former President of India) Inaugural Address, ‘1st  National Conference on

      Eradication of Illiteracy Among Women’ Times of  India, Feb. 21, 1988

08. Second Asia-Pacific Ministerial Conference on “Women in Development” Jakarta, June 7-14,1994

09.  Usha Narayanan “Women’s Political Empowerment: Imperatives and Challenges” Mainstream.

        April 10,1999

10.  Nisar Ahmad; “Women Empowerment and Policy Perspective”. Paper presented in a ‘Workshop 

on Empowerment of Women’  Centre of Adult and  Continuing and Extension Education, KU.             

11.  Earth Summit, Rio, June 3-14, 1992

12. Robert; P: Adult Education: A Comparative Study (1972)

13. Dutta; S.C: (1987) Adult Education in the Third World.

15.United Nations population Division-World Population Prospects (20th Century Report)

16.  National Literacy Mission, MHRD, Govt. of India, New Delhi (1987)

17. World Education Report – 1995 See Literacy: Facts at Glance, Directorate of Adult Education,  

      MHRD, New Delhi

18. EFA Global Monitoring Report 2003/04

19. See Literacy Facts at Glance, National Literacy Mission,  MHRD, New Delhi  (1998)

20. See Literacy Facts at Glance, Directorate of Adult Education, MHRD, 2005

21. National Policy on Education 1986. Ministry of Human, Resource Development, Govt. of India (May  


23. Gomez; R: ‘Education in Development’ International Educator  Vol. 2. No. 2-3 (Oct. 1984) 49.


                                                                 X   X   X   X   X   X   X                                     




*Dr. SHANMUKHA PADALA : The author is a well qualified and posses Vast teaching experience in Field of Management. He has great interest in the field of Human Resource Management and Accountancy. Now he is working as Faculty in the Department of Commerce and Management Studies, Andhra University Campus, Vizianagaram. He participated in several National and International Seminars, Workshops, Symposias,  FDP Programmes and published rich number of articles in reputed journals.       E-Mail: srpadaslaau@gmail.com and Mobile : +91 94403 23606.


**Dr. N.V.S.SURYANARAYANA : The author is an renowned personality in the field of Education. Presently he is working as Faculty in the Department of Education, Andhra University Campus, Vizianagaram. He has rich experience in the field of Teacher Education about a decade at Post Degree and PG level. He is very much fascinated to Psychology and possess much interested in Educational Psychology and Guidance & Counseling. He participated in so many National and International Seminars, Workshops, Refresher Courses, Symposia’s and published so many articles in reputed Journals. He produced a number of M.Ed and M.Phil Dissertations.He wrote so many books on recent trends in education and innovative Psychological concepts. He is having Lifetime memberships in various alleged Associations. E-Mail: suryanarayana_nvs@yahoo.com, Mobile : +91 94403 48609.

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Can anyone tell me about the College of Human Ecology at Cornell University? ?

Human Ecology
by n kw

Question by Jane: Can anyone tell me about the College of Human Ecology at Cornell University? ?
For people who have studied there.

Best answer:

Answer by TJ
Cornell West

What do you think? Answer below!

Broadlane Receives Champion for Change Award for Third Consecutive Year

Broadlane logo

Dallas, TX (Vocus) May 20, 2008

Broadlane is pleased to announce it received the Practice Greenhealth Champion for Change Award for the third consecutive year for outstanding contributions as a group purchasing organization to environmentally responsible health care. The award was presented to Broadlane, along with other top health care and health care partnering organizations, at the Environmental Excellence Awards today in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.

The Champion for Change Award is an achievement reserved for organizational partners supplying health care products and services that are considerate of the earth and its resources. The winners of this award have demonstrated success in greening their organization and have also assisted others who are committed to improving their environmental performance.

“This award is a reflection of BroadlaneÂ?s business ethics and represents a strong commitment to protect patient health and preserve the environment,” said Bob Jarboe, executive director, Practice Greenhealth. “The stakes are high, and Broadlane has shown us its solutions are sustainable and exciting.”

“Health care facilities and health care partners are accepting the challenge and demonstrating increasing willingness to take a strong stand on issues affecting the health of patients, health care workers and the environment,” said Charles Saunders, M.D., chairman and chief executive officer, Broadlane. “We are living the environmental motto of Â?reduce, reuse and recycle,Â? reducing our impact on the environment and assisting clients in reducing their impact on the environment.”

In October 2007, Broadlane adopted a significant innovative green alternative: computer virtualization. Virtualization software allows the Broadlane technology department to run several servers on a single piece of physical hardware. Broadlane converted the majority of its production and supporting test environments to a virtual platform. The transition to virtual computing reduced its environmental footprint by 90 percent. The virtual servers use less space, heat, power, air-conditioning and lower hardware maintenance costs. Broadlane recycled the old servers to reduce landfill waste.

“Broadlane is moving from awareness to action-oriented processes and systems that integrate environmentally conscience behaviors into all contracting processes,” said Annetta Nellams, senior manager, environmental stewardship program, Broadlane. “As a corporate leader in environmental stewardship, we not only provide environmentally preferable purchasing options to our clients, we also participate in environmentally preferable purchasing as a company.”

Broadlane actively seeks to contract with suppliers who are environmental stewards and provide environmentally preferable products for all clients. Environmental priorities and activities vary among clients and include objectives to raise awareness of environmentally preferable purchasing, environmental sustainability and patient safety.

“Broadlane recognizes the importance of providing environmentally sound products and services and has developed a comprehensive plan of action,” said DeAnna Herrin, senior vice president, contracting services, Broadlane. “Our environmental stewardship program represents our commitment and embraces action, rather than just awareness. We consciously choose environmentally responsible contracting, actively help our clients purchase environmentally preferable products and deliberately take actions at our corporate office to improve environmental performance.”

About Practice Greenhealth

Practice Greenhealth is the result of the merger of two leading organizations Â? Hospitals for a Healthy Environment (H2E) and the Green Guide for Health Care (GGHC) Â? with a new clean energy and energy efficiency program Â? Healthcare Clean Energy Exchange (HCEE). For more information on Practice Greenhealth, healthy initiatives, current trends, news and views and other links to earth-friendly organizations, visit www.practicegreenhealth.org.

About Broadlane

Broadlane is a leading supply chain services company serving thousands of acute care hospitals, ambulatory care facilities, physician practices and other healthcare providers throughout the United States.

Broadlane provides comprehensive supply chain services including:

Â?    High-powered national and custom contracting

Â?    Innovative Procurement Services and technology

Â?    Informatics Â? benchmarking, analytics and reporting

Â?    Deep clinical and operational expertise

Â?    Resource Management Services

Broadlane’s clients include leading providers such as Advocate Health Care, Ascension Health, CHRISTUS Health, Continuum Health Partners, Kaiser Permanente, Kindred Healthcare, MedCath Corporation, New Hanover Regional Medical Center, Sisters of Charity of Leavenworth Health System, St. LukeÂ?s Episcopal Health System, Tenet Healthcare, The Health Alliance of Greater Cincinnati, US Oncology, UMass Memorial Health Care and Beaumont Hospitals.

The company is headquartered in Dallas with offices in Cincinnati, Detroit, Houston, Kansas City, New York City and Oakland. For more information, visit www.broadlane.com.

Media Contact:

Jim Webb





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Is Green Lending Your New Mortgage Niche?

The hot topic in real estate is green homes. People are building, buying, and remodeling existing homes to make them more energy efficient, healthy, and have less of an impact on the environment. While it is a fairly recent trend in housing, it started in commercial building more than two decades ago as owners looked for ways to cut rising utility bills. The field quickly grew beyond a concern with energy to incorporate materials, techniques, and products that conserve scarce resources, recycle used materials, and avoid the use of toxic ingredients and processes. As better and cheaper products and materials became available, green or eco-friendly building spread to residential construction.

Green building is fast becoming the norm for new commercial projects, but it isn’t clear how many houses are actually being built with energy saving and environmentally friendly features because the statistics still conflate commercial and residential markets.  In 2006, McGraw Hill Construction estimated that by this year green building would represent 10 percent of all construction and the president of the U.S. Green Building Council (USGBC) said last April that green construction had contributed 8 billion to the gross domestic product during the previous eight years. But in neither case do we know if residential building represents 20 percent or 90 percent of those figures. There is anecdotal evidence, however, that green building is a growing factor in both new residential construction and remodeling. For example, the State of California just enacted the first statewide “green” building code and 6,500 builders have signed on to build Energy Star approved homes. USGBC’s LEED program which originally monitored green commercial construction now offers five levels of certification for housing. We can also assume that however big green home building is today, it will get bigger; to what degree is still an unknown.

So far there hasn’t been a lot of news about financing green homes, partially because a special mortgage would be overkill for many purchases.  A lot of green building merely reflects new technology applied to old products such as Low-e (low emission) coating on window glass or formaldehyde-free kitchen cabinets. Where a green house is just a regular home with green features, a plain vanilla mortgage will work just fine.    

Nonetheless, some environmentally sensitive homes do have financing issues. A subset of very green homes such as domes, Yurts, and earth bag homes are growing in popularity but many projects do not get off the ground because the chosen construction methods, while valid, confound appraisers or scare lenders. Even ordinary homes that have a single unique feature such as a geothermal HVAC system or solar embedded roofing shingles can run afoul of underwriting guidelines. Construction loans are also an issue. Think of all of the usual problems inherent in placing construction financing for a single family home and quadruple it if the house is really green. Building codes have not yet caught up with green technology – it is another year until even California’s new regs take effect – nor have many of the loan officers who must sign off on construction advances.

There are green mortgages available but so far they aren’t widely known. FHA offers a wrinkle to its 203(b) and 203(k) loan guidelines that permits recognition of the cost savings of green improvements. The Energy Efficient Mortgage (EEM) program allows the borrower to incorporate the cost of some green improvements on the top of the approved mortgage without qualifying for the higher loan amount or basing the down payment on it. Freddie Mac, Fannie Mae and VA mortgages offer similar concessions and Energy Star, a joint effort of the EPA and Department of Energy, has a pilot program underway which, in addition to the features of the FHA program, encourages lenders to offer preferential rates, reduced fees, or lower closing costs to borrowers. There are caps on most of these EEM programs but they are still useful, especially where customers are pushing the limits of their ratios.  

It would appear that, at present, green home financing has the following characteristics:
•    The size of the potential market is unknown.
•    There is an unmet demand for creative products in some sectors.  
•    Programs are that are available are not being appropriately marketed and promoted.
•    No one really understands what is going on.
•    Not many people are doing anything about it.

Sounds like the very definition of an opportunity. There appears to be a need for entrepreneurs who understand what is going on out there and some excellent reasons to position yourself as a green financing expert.  

It is a pretty empty niche. If there are lenders specializing in green loans they are doing a poor job of marketing. Google green mortgages, green lenders, or green mortgage brokers and you will get millions of hits but the top ones lead to blogs bemoaning the lack of green financing or to the Websites of mortgage brokers named Green.  USGBC’s national green directory lists only six financing sources. The National Association of Realtors offers members a green designation, the Mortgage Bankers Association does not.
Becoming the green mortgage expert in your area code or even staking a national claim to the title would not be difficult. First, learn the basics of green building and green home ownership. Most of the methods and terminology are pretty simple and there are dozens of books and Websites to get you started.  It is important that you are familiar with the underlying concepts of green building such as sustainability and, while you should be aware of materials and products, technical knowledge is not required; it is good to know what a geothermal heat pumps is but not necessary to know how it works.   

Learn who the players are. LEED, USGBC’s Leadership in Environmental Education and Design program mentioned above, is one of the gatekeepers, establishing standards for green building and for professionals in the field. Energy Star has long rated appliances and other products for energy efficiency and is now doing the same for new homes. The National Association of Home Builders is active in developing green residential building standards and the Forest Stewardship Council certifies the sustainability of wood-based building materials. You will quickly learn about another dozen or so organizations and agencies which are active in the field.

Qualify for existing programs such as those offered by FHA or the pilot Energy Star program. If you are in a position to do so, develop programs of your own. Talk with your investors about this potentially explosive market and how you might capitalize on it. If you can develop a conduit for financing some of the more extreme building techniques, you will be a market maker. Techniques such as straw bale building have a long history, are structurally valid, and are growing in popularity, but can be mortgage orphans.

Be prepared to educate appraisers and insurance agents. A lack of comps or the ability to secure hazard insurance kills a lot of green financing. There is no reason a home with a conventional gas furnace cannot be a comp for one with a geothermal system and when an insurance agent balks at insuring a straw bale house he needs to know those houses have four times the burn rating of stick construction. You will sometimes have to force these people to lift their heads out of their rule books.  

Marketing a green business focus is easy and relatively inexpensive. Contact green builders in your area as well as realtors, especially any holding the NAR green designation. Qualify as a partner with Energy Star at http://www.energystar.gov/index.cfm?c=bldrs_lenders_raters.pt_lender_benefits.  If you can provide financing for any of more outré building techniques, contact and post on the dozens of blogs that support their use; financing is a big topic of discussion. Advertise in the USGBC and NAHB directories and, depending on your focus, in community directories in green conscious cities such as Austin, Texas; Portland, Oregon; and Cambridge, Massachusetts.

The trend to green building could become a megatrend; develop into the industry standard, or merely remain a small and healthy market sector. Mortgage lenders who start to focus on this market early could find a steady flow of new business or a potential bonanza. In any case, they will be ahead of the curve when the competition finally discovers the market.    

David is the Founder and CEO of LoanOfficerSchool.com, an approved education provider for The Conference of State Bank Supervisors and The National Mortgage Licensing Systems’ (NMLS) required pre-licensing education and continuing education.

Article from articlesbase.com

eBridge Ranked Number 364 Fastest Growing Company in North America on Deloitte?s 2010 Technology Fast 500?

eBridge Ranked Number 364 Fastest Growing Company in North America on Deloitte’s 2010 Technology Fast 500™

Encino, CA (PRWEB) October 20, 2010

eBridge, Inc., today announced that it ranked number 364 on Technology Fast 500™, Deloitte’s ranking of 500 of the fastest growing technology, media, telecommunications, life sciences and clean technology companies in North America. Rankings are based on percentage of fiscal year revenue growth during the period from 2005–2009. eBridge grew 237 percent during this period.

eBridge’s chief executive officer, Mark Cave, credits SMB migration to internet marketing and an increasingly fragmented marketplace with the company’s 237% revenue growth. He said, “While SMBs recognize the need to bring their business online, today’s average small business owner simply cannot keep up with the myriad of options driving the industry. Our customer-centric approach to service and true understanding of the unique needs of small business owners allows eBridge to lend a welcomed hand across the online divide, providing our clients relevant and powerful internet marketing tools.”

“eBridge and the other 2010 Technology Fast 500™ winners forged ahead in a challenging economic environment to realize exceptional growth,” said Phil Asmundson, vice chairman and Deloitte’s U.S. technology, media and telecommunications leader. “Deloitte commends eBridge for this impressive accomplishment.”

“eBridge has proved itself to be one of the fastest growing tech companies in North America, and we are proud to honor them as one of the 2010 Technology Fast 500™,” said Mark Jensen, managing partner, venture capital services, Deloitte & Touche LLP.

For additional detail on the Technology Fast 500™ including selection and qualifying criteria, visit http://www.fast500.com

About eBridge, Inc.

eBridge consistently rises to the challenges businesses and marketing agencies both face with the decline of traditional Yellow Page advertising and the increase in complex marketing strategies. In the face of a fragmenting online marketplace, coupled with a global recession, eBridge has consistently maintained growth and industry-wide recognition from its inception in 2003 until today. eBridge currently enrolls 15,000 new customers monthly, and has been recognized by such prestigious organizations as the Inc 5000, Deloitte Technology Fast 500, and Ernst & Young Entrepreneur of the Year for outstanding growth and leadership.

As used in this document, “Deloitte” means Deloitte LLP. Please see http://www.deloitte.com/us/about for a detailed description of the legal structure of Deloitte LLP and its subsidiaries.

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Q&A: Do we live in age of environmental economics?

Question by Pamela_1988: Do we live in age of environmental economics?
I maybe stating the obvious but I mean with all the attention over green house gases. Are we in capitalist countries going to move away from neoliberalism economics to this form of ecological economics to reach Kyoto targets ratified by countries around the world?

( not 100% sure what defines ecological/environmental economics though, would be good if someone can define it.)

Best answer:

Answer by billy25685
we are not there yet but it is a developing platform for many new products and politicians, give it another 10 years to reach early maturation

What do you think? Answer below!