In human civilization to industrial from Stone Age, then computer to information and multimedia innovative technological age, it has just been about building and forgetting things around us including environment. Today human sensitivity is aggressively defining age as an age of sensitivity and for safety and environment. Every thing we have been building for years during transition in those ages have been built with ignorance, oblivion or lack of consciousness to the environment or simply as a result of oblivion that they are part of us. The term “environmental issues” usually implies one of two interpretations: 1) Wind, waves, tides, sediment characteristics and/or other environmental factors involved in Channel design and usage, 2) Environmental protection in the sense of reducing the negative impact on water quality or aquatic and coastal habitat quality. In the first sense of the term, all concern need to agree that methods for predicting and reporting environmental conditions have greatly improved and this should be able to give us direction as long as we are ready to connect the dots. This paper will address and give insight into the following questions in regard to burning flame of environment and impact to ship design: What is the current situation? ?What is the desired situation? Why is there a difference between the current and the desired situation? What are the impediments to change? How can these impediments be most effectively addressed?
In shipping and associated industries, ship protection and marine pollution are respectively interlink in term of safety and environment, conventionally ship safety is being deal with as its occurrence result to environmental problem. Ship Pollution seem to be very small, especially considering emission, but today culmination of oversight regarding emission seem to be back – firing against us from ozone layer depletion to the incessant flooding and more seem to be on the way if we don’t question or caution ourselves, again, shipping is not left behind in this, in fact, it seem to be the most to get hit by next big environmental revolt. Pollutions is about accident and accident it, about because, the later is the cause of the former. Sequel with this, this paper will address environmental impacts to ship design with respect to human, safety, ship reliability, channel, and maneuverability factors and everything that surround us and ship. And of course ship design consideration that needs to be incorporated in the ship design and the design process regarding these enumerated factors.
In respect to the above, current situation, will be examined, policy, demand, mitigation and way to move forward will be addressed. Emphasize on importance of simulation, risk assessment of restricted channel and new generation or class of larger ships that coming to market including the need to introduce maritime environment awareness in maritime curriculum by laying emphasize to simulation of real and fictitious ships. Need to incorporate as much of cybernetic technology in navigational and maritime operations and finally actionable navigation, marine environment mitigation measure, recommendation for improving the safety of navigation and protection of the marine environment by enhancing cost effective state of art sustainable of ship that has great controllability in extreme whether and restricted water areas.
Likewise, for many years, less attention has been given to ship life cycle, material properties, and frequency matching with the environment has resulted to corrosion. Also ship scraping, and what happen to the environment after ship scraping, yes a lot of recycling, but little or no attention is given to the residual material that find their ways to pollute the clean beautiful sea. Other areas of concern are channel design criteria ships, controllability in dredged channels, and ?ship maneuverability as a consideration in the Design Process. All in all, preventive and control incorporating sensible measures in ship design can only optimize method and give us confidence on our environment. Focal areas that are will need revolutionary changes in ship design that will be identified in this paper are:
Material selection to withstand structural, weight, economical lifecycle anticorrosion and fouling
Incorporating ship simulation at early stage of ship design
Structural scantly to withstand structural function, reliability, integrity, weight, economical lifecycle
Incorporation maneuvering ship simulation at early stage of design iteration
Incorporate new close loop environmental disposal technology system to make new ships environmental safe.
3.0 Environmental issue – a blessing in disguise
The million dollar answer is that whether we start in order to make clean ships, the optimal choice we have is to design shipboard pollution control system that will allow us to treat or process all ship waste on board or allow us to incorporate or integrating such system in existing ship. Most especially, incorporating such system in earlier ship design process through forming basic concept to set aside enough space on board and make the most of the overall design of scalable and efficient .Yes, we need to design system that will allow us to destroyed waste on board the ship and those that not be destroyed will be treated so that discharge. Due to advert environmental causality and impact of recent days, sensitivity has caused serious policy and more will follow, already we have deadline for some. If we don’t do this now, what we will see are similitude of : Inconvenience of discharge regulation;More MARPOL special discharge areas ;Augmentation of Confusion caused by waste signature – advert of floating of debris
Now, considering the beneficent part of this contemporary issue, environmentally sound ship- self-contained and independent of shore facilities for shipboard waste management will end up reducing logistic requirement and costs.Time has already seen how ineconomy and inconvenience it is for ships pumping liquid waste to pier side reception facilities, offload solid waste and excess hazardous material for disposal – vessel are astronomically being charge substantial costs by private contractors to disposed these generated wastes, beside this, who don’t like good names, good names is attached to being responsible, and be among the clean ship in port state control report to IMO. With this, green ship will nonetheless give the following beneficial business advantages to clean ships:
They will be significant ship of tomorrow; they will be the ship with good pride and public image that will provide leadership definition to shipping companies of tomorrow.
They will be safer, environmental friendly, everything around them including marine recourses will be safe
They will maintain good relationship with legislation and environmental agencies hence minimizes the risk of fines and litigation.
Helps control operational pollution, minimizing the risk of an environmental incident.
Enables companies to demonstrate a proactive approach to environmental protection.
Helps companies to gain recognition of investment in pollution control technology.
Improves operational efficiency will Provides confidence that environmental risk is being managed effectively. High levels of environmental performance can create competitive advantage
Today, environmentally conscious world there is already so mush pressure on ship-owners to minimize the impact of their operations on the environment. And again more are coming, luckily we are in an age of Innovation and development in this information and technological age has involved activities in relation to speed, safety, reliability, miniaturization, cost, mobility and networking in most industries this is the poweress of human civilization, we have the technology it is matte of exercising more creativity witting our limited time to manipulate our system to in order o come up with sustainable system.
4.0 Why environmental issue become a hot issue
Over the last decade, each passing years has been augmented concerned about issue of environment importance in design, construction, operation and beneficial disposal of marine articraft .the overriding force is increasing the resources of the planet that we live and that only a few are renewable. This accumulated to production that has elements of long-term sustainability of the earth. Precipitated effect over the year has call for public awareness and translated into impact through these two main manners:
Commercial forces: where company that or product that operate in unenvironmental friendly way, people are prone to spurn the companies products and service, there fore having impact on company return on investment.
Regulations: public pressure on governmental and non-governmental organization regulation due to untold stories of disaster and impact, the public is very concerned and in need of fact that if the quality of life of people enjoy is to be sustained, for them and the future generation then the environment must be protected. conspicuous issue, expertise and finding of regulations make them to go extra length on unseen issue, contrasting between the two, while commercial force act on hat will be forth problems.
Ship Concept design is very important in shipping and it account for 80 percent of failure, therefore compliance and making of optimal design has a great impact in ship whole life cycle. The impact of environment in ship design is very difficult because of large numbers of uncertainties. Environmental impact hat need to be taken into considerations in concept design can be classified into the following:
Construction -Energy and pollution – these come into picture when multidirectional thinking give wisdom on what happen during transportation, mining, rolling of material that will be used.
Operations: considering limiting life cycle of ships at estimate of 20 years, issues relating to the following are equally not easy to quantify in design work, even thus a lot of research effort has been set on move on this, but the call of the day require allowable clearance and solution to be given to the following: Known emission, Accidental, Ballast waste, Coating.
Disposal: issue of disposal that cover waste and emission and as well as what to do with the ship at the end of her life cycle.
5.0 Major impact areas
Environmental protection shall be considered a design constraint when evaluating cost, schedule, and performance of systems under development and for product improvement of those that have been deployed. The cognizant engineer shall consider the environmental impact of proposed actions, and a mitigation plan developed where required to supports unrestricted operations by developing, producing, installing, and managing all shipboard equipment, systems, and procedures to reduce and manage shipboard wastes in compliance with existing and anticipated environmental restrictions worldwide without jeopardizing ship mission, survivability, or habitability.
5.1 Sequel to the above we can deduce that these major effects from ships environmental impacts are:
· Intentional and unintentional discharge (oil, garbage, antifouling paint, air emission, on indigenous species from ballast water
· Environmental damage and pollution due to port activities
· Disturbance of marine environmental (collision and noise)
Emission from scraping of ships at the end of their life cycle
Risk associated with environmental issue n ship and in ship designing is:
1. Accidental risk – marine accident that could result to oil spills which then, end up degrading our environment GESAMP reported that 400-300 thousands of oil entered the world ocean (GEASMP, 1993), collision with marine mammal, which then cause propeller injuries
2. Operational risks-socio economic impacts to marine ecology, habitat, and coastal infrastructures are affected though operational activities that result to oil spill, emission, ballast water, garbage, contamination, antifouling and dredging activities.
In addition to this according to RINA Publication, the table shows typical 100 years ITH standards measurements of global warming potential for a substance are shown in table1
Fig. 1 – Global worming potential (GWP) of various compound- source
5.2 Impact -vessel, channel and maneuverability- in the context of ship design the impacts areas are: Shipping Trends, Channel Design Criteria, Ship Maneuverability, Ship Controllability, and Use of Simulators in Channel Studies. Since world II many nations built port but forget about maintaining them while shipyard continues to build larger ships. Physical dimension and ratio of ships to channel has got impact in today’s ship controllability design are:
Ships’ increase ship beam expansion where as channel width is not, Length/beam (L/B) ratio
2. Radius of turns and turning areas-Radius of turns is directly related to navigation safety and protection of the marine environment, large rudder angles are needed to navigate small radius turns Rudder size;
3. Power/tonnage ratio;
4. Minimum bare steerage speed; and Windage
6. International maritime organization
6.1 Policies and procedures build-up –Pollution/ Emission prevention and control
International convention for the prevention of pollution from ships (MARPOL) 1973, It covers accidental and operational oil pollution as well as pollution by chemicals, goods in packaged form, sewage, garbage and air pollution I was modified by the protocol on of 1978 relating thereto (MARPOL 73/78), MARPOL cover:
o Annex I- oil
o Annex II-noxious liquid chemicals
o Annex III- Harmful Goods (package)
o Annex III-sewage
o Annex IV- emission and air pollution (Sox, Nox and green house gas, emission of ozone depletion gas (ODG))
New coming annex to MARPOL –Talk is going on passing new annex that will cover:
· Control and management of ballast water to minimize transfer of harmful foreign species
· Global prohibition of TBT in antifouling coating 0- phase out scheduled for 2008
Marine environmental protection committee (MEPC) – IMO technical committee forming subcommittee on specific issue to implement regulation towards necessary mitigation
International convention on oil pollution, Response and cooperation (OPRC)- 1990 – policy to combating major incidents or threats of marine pollution through port state control to prevent mitigates or eliminates danger to its coastline from a maritime casualty. Annex protocol under this convention (HNS Protocol) covers marine pollution by hazardous and noxious substances.
Classification societies– Classification society are aggressively building service on Environment Protection notation, and various performance indicator to get all concern committed to running an environmentally sound ships.
Lloyds- Lloyds through risk assessment holistic method has defined the following effects as clean ship the benchmark standard. As Lloyd put it “These will help you gain recognition for your additional investment in specific aspects of pollution control. Using the Rules as a framework our surveyors and environmental specialists can work with you to tailor environmental protection solutions to your specific needs”
Dnv –DnV has equally lunched EMBLA database integrated project hat will manage discharge of ballast water.
European Union – Recently the union has embarked on multinational project call MARTOB ballast water
Montreal Protocol –Some 110 governments attended the (9th Meeting of the Parties) of the Parties to the Montreal Protocol, September 1997 where several important decisions were reached, including the tightening of restrictions on several destructive chemicals.
6.2 Policies and procedures build-up – collision preventions and control –Although ships may spend 90 – 98 percent of their operational lives underway at sea speed in deep water, it is during the mandatory beginning and end of every voyage when the risk of collisions, and groundings are highest. Ensuring the ability to maintain complete and positive control of a ship’s movement during these segments of a voyage is absolutely vital if that risk of navigation safety and protection of the marine environment is to be reduced. According to INTERTANKO’s 1996 Port and putting bigger and bigger ships (and more of them) into the same old channel:
· The design limit for trim by the stern for a tanker is 0.015L in accordance with Regulation 13 of MARPOL 73/78, Annex I. This information, which is based on tests conducted in deepwater, includes a turning circle diagram as well as tables showing time and distance to stop the vessel from full and half-speed.
· IMO Resolution A601 (15), which was adopted in 1987, contains recommendations for ensuring maneuvering information is available on board ship.
· The 1995 Seafarers’ Training, Certification and Watch keeping Code, Section A-VIII/2 part 3-1, and article 49 require the master and pilot to “exchange information regarding navigation procedures, local conditions and the ship’s characteristics.”
· A Marine Board study assessed the use of numerical simulation technology to train mariners and concluded that while modeling accuracy is sufficient for deep-water operations; modeling requires refinement to provide the accuracy needed for shallow and restricted water operations.
6.3 Ship design policy build-up –In 1971, IMO adopted Resolution A.209 (VII) establishing recommendations regarding posting maneuvering 9 Regulation II-1/29.3.2 of SOLAS requires rudder movement from 35 degree on either side to 30o on the other to occur in 28 seconds or less.
IMO approved circular MSC/Circ.389 in 1985 establish interim guidelines for estimating the maneuverability -Rudder size and effectiveness, Ability to transit at slow forward speed, Propulsion and propeller characteristics, Number of available engine reversals, Adequate horsepower for control, Extra reserve rudder angle needed to allow for ship crabbing from wind forces or moored ship suction, Visibility from bridge and bridge arrangement, Hull form squat (trim and sink age) characteristics and effect of bank forces on moorings and passing ships, Air draft, Emergency anchoring ability, Amount of tow line leads and line access.
7.0 Current Ship design practice
Existing design tools cannot, at least with any degree of reliability, be used to design a vessel and ensure it will ensure environmental reliability and adequate maneuverability in shallow or restricted waters neither can it be use to satisfy demand need by clean ships . In part this is because of the extreme on-linearity of hull and propulsion characteristics under these conditions. In general, naval architects and marine engineers are educated and equipped with knowledge, skills, and design processes that permit continuous checking and balancing of constraints and design tradeoffs of vessel capabilities as the design progresses.
The intended result of the process is the best design given the basic requirements of speed, payload, and endurance nor where the waste is going. Focus is not placed on how the channels and waterways are designed. Perhaps even more importantly, there is a general lack of understanding of the operational scenario regarding piloting of vessels in constrained waterways. Only recently has there been a real attempt to fully integrate human operational practices with vessel design. The involvement of human beings onboard vessels both extends and restricts the inherent vessel maneuvering capabilities vastly complicating the necessary methodology for assuring safe and efficient operations. Taking waste issue and restricted waterway maneuverability as an important part of ship design spiral would seem a necessary step to enabling proper tradeoffs in vessel design. The reality is that maneuverability and pollution protection is still not an important consideration in ship design of many merchant ships. The result is that design decisions that can compromise environment and collision are decided in favor of other factors. Only with consideration of the full range of ship and channel design and human factors relationships affecting maneuverability will we be able to produce an efficient and safe environmental friendly marine transportation system. Now that the new issue of environment is around, then we have to squeeze in more stuff in the spiral.
Table 1 – parameters s demand and impact
Need for longer safe life cycle
New limit definition, Correct material selection, Material technology, Quality control of safety and environment
High worker safety standards, Low energy input
Improved hull hydrodynamic,
Minimum pollution and emission, Minimum Sox, Nox and green house gas-Zero discharge
Advance Close loop process on board,Waste recycling equipment, Improve training
Zero harmful emission
Maximum fuel efficiency
Engine design, use of alternative energy
Biocide free technology
Zero biological invasion or transfer of alien species
Segregated ballast tanks, Improved ballast water tank design, Ballast water treatment, Ballast water data base
Safer ship structure design, Improve maneuvering capability, Navigation AID, misinformation, Exchange, Reeducation
Able officer, Ship structure, Integrity
New monitoring through port sate control
Halon phase out
Wave wash of High speed
Zero inundation and spray ashore
Moderation of hydrodynamic force
8.1 Shipboard and waste emission outline –treatment and elimination – Pollution Prevention (P2) or Pollution Control-this is backbone of the thrust in achieving clean ship. Pollution Prevention Use fewer environmentally harmful substances and generate less waste on board. Pollution Control: Increase treatment, processing, or destruction of wastes on board.
The basic P2 principles follow:
Eliminating the use of environmentally harmful chemicals, such as ozone-depleting substance (ODSs), toxic antifoulant hull coatings, and other hazardous materials, may be the best approach for some potential problems.
Fig.2-Treatment and emission
Reducing the amount of waste we generate on board is often better that treating it on board: for example, reducing the amount of plastics and other packaging materials taken aboard may simplify solid and plastics-waste management? Similarly, reducing the volume of liquid wastes generated (such as graywater) may simplify onboard liquid-waste treatment.
1. For the wastes and hazardous materials that cannot be prevented, we must develop pollution-control strategies and technologies.
Other technical mitigation measures are:
Toxic approach uses other metals such copper and zinc, or agrochemicals e.g. triazines
Fouling release approach use physical properties of low surface energy coating cause the very weak attachment of fouling organisms. E.g. silicone based coating
Fouling deterrence –marine organism not know for fouling like corals are use
Mobile hull cleaning is also being use operationally
Ballast water discharge
On board treatment – chemical (chlorination), physical treatment (Ultra violet light, heat treatment), filtration and cyclonic separation, shore base treatment is sometime being used but not common.
Operational mitigation based on information of biological difference between coastal ocean water where ballast and ballasting is done accordingly.
Sulfur reduction in bunker fuel
Nitrogen reduction to choice of propulsion system
On board Cataleptics system like charlatanic converter, water injection, emulsion
Operationally sped reduction and use of shore power connection has been implemented
8.2 Ship collision control and prevention outlines- Most accident are attributed to a flagrant controllability problem and the remain the classic impetus necessary to make improvements to safety and environmental protection, and we e need to do more to ensure adequate vessel maneuverability perhaps better matching of vessel, channel, and operational practices.
Ship maneuverability as major iterative element of design spiral-ship maneuverability is not considered particularly important during the design process, because Owners generally do not include maneuverability requirements as part of the design specification; Firm deep- and shallow/restricted-water maneuvering standards that can be applied during the design process should be established.
Modeling and simulation –Collection of data using dual frequency DGPS receivers and proper analysis needs to be supported to enable unlocking our understanding of restricted water operations.
9.0 Environmental technology
9.1 Recent development coalition control work –Environmental technology also become hot as issue of environment start burning, this might be a start of another evolution, as environmental technology product will start selling good.
9.1 Recent environmental performance
1 Ozone safe substances- 200-Ton Air-Conditioning Plant Conversion Kit -The CG-47and DDG-51 plants have been successfully converted to the ozone-friendly refrigerant HFC-236fa conversion kit has been established by NSWCCD.
Solid waste – Solid-Waste Pulpers –The pulper (especially the large pulper) is the machine into which you dump tremendous quantities of paper, cardboard, or food waste. The waste mixes with seawater to form slurry, which is then discharged overboard. Studies show an immediate 100,000-to-1 dilution when discharged into the wake of a ship. Ships equipped with a pulper can dispose of their paper, cardboard, and food waste just about anywhere and at anytime—at sea including MARPOL areas.
Liquid waste – OWS and Bilge water Polishers: Many bilge cleaners the Navy uses today contain long-lasting emulsifying agents, which produce stable oil-in-water emulsions that shipboard OWSs cannot effectively process.
Shipboard Wastes and Emissions
To improve the reliability of sanitary waste system sewage transfer-pump suction and discharge gauges, naval research laboratory the ring-gauge isolator is adopting, Thermal Destruction and integrated liquid discharge system, the later is a concept where ultra filtration membrane systems would concentrate bilgewater, graywater, and sewage (as previously described); the clean effluents would be discharged; and the concentrates would be evaporated/incinerated in a thermal-destruction system.
Fig. 2 – integrated liquid discharge system concept- source – NRL
9.2 Recent development coalition control work – A number of promising developments that exist today are:
1. Kutsuro Kijima showed a modeling approach that permitted analysis of passing situations that would help set procedural standards for safe passing.
2. IanDand reported on the development of models for ships squat that have shown very good accuracy over the years.
3. Larry Daggett described the advent of dual frequency DGPS receivers and their role in gathering full-scale ship trial data. In addition to the excellent horizontal accuracy of the normal DGPS receiver, these receivers provide vertical location with an accuracy measured in centimeters.
10.0 The future
There is nothing more difficult to take in hand, more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain of success than to take a lead in the introduction of a new order of things because the innovation has for enemies all those have done well under the old conditions and lukewarm defenders in those who may do well under new.
Machiavelli, the prince
Recent Safety and Environmental Strategic focus on developing metrics to measure and evaluate progress. The key issues and actions are incorporated in the clean ship concept. Ships owner and operators must understand the need to include wastes stream management in mission requirement in the design stages, with the goal of ships being in compliance. Ship designer must pursue technologies to reduce or eliminate waste streams. The metrics use to monitor progress towards achieving environmentally sound ships will focus on shipboard pollution control equipment installations, specifically the planned versus actual installations. Each waste stream or environmental pollutant, equipment installations, the percentage of total installations completed versus the planned percentage, will be used as a measure of progress for that waste stream. For waste streams and contaminants for which no equipment has been approved or anticipated, the metric will born many R&D for necessary findings . We must take a lead in effectively integrating pollution prevention and safety into the design and life cycle of our ships, systems, ordnance into the execution of our processes, and into the operation. Managing the whole process is another thing; environmental management can be optimizing by incorporating the following concept in our system:
Goal based , risk based and holistic design approach
Total cost minimization concept,
Innovative safety and environmental strategy management and integration,
Planning for uncertainty and risk, R(P1c) = R(E1) x W(E1,P1) + R(E2) x W(E2,P1) + R(E4) x W(E4,P1)
Where: R= rating, E= environmental factor, P= Policy factor
Probabilistic and stochastic validation
Education and training
11.0 Conclusion – Working better by working together
Amazingly, it seem that everything is need to be integrated in order for the world to function, this sounds ironical, even thus the environment has naturally integrated everything, the same apply to maritime on issue of safety and marine environmental impact control and protection, it is important to for the main players in design (pilots, regulators, channel designers, simulator experts and ship operators),and all concerned to share experience Regarding differences in rules and among regulators, about rules that are taken too light , sensitivity of area, degrees of hazard for various ship types ,Naval architects and ship handlers alike should take the importance of importance green house and green ship issue and (and difficulty) of the passing maneuver unrestricted waters .
Environmental issue has become so sensitive because it is more or less of evidence that nature has exercise enough patience, impact has reach flash point and those who are knowledgeable about the behavior of matter and environment could sense potential of contagious chain of reaction that can lead to heavy calamity destruction and lost. Treating the issue equally required hybridizations of all the methodology we have been using- objectives and subjective, reactive and proactive, and of course newly holistic institutionalized method that compare and consider trend analysis of every elements of what we are dealing with.
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6) IMO (1998a) MARPOL Focus on IMO